Home Oxygen Treatment of Childhood Acute Bronchiolitis
Background: acute bronchiolitis (AB) is a common reason for hospitalization of infants in all population groups, and is usually due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The main cause for hospitalization is often a need for oxygen, but can also include high fever (with a suspected secondary bacterial infection) or increasing respiratory distress. In a minority of cases (some of which can be identified in advance by defining risk groups) a serious illness may develop, including risk of respiratory failure and death. Most cases will just require supplemental oxygen and suction of secretions from the nose (as listed in the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics - AAP). However, this apparently "simple" treatment still requires continued hospitalization. This results in a sharp increase in bed occupancy in Israeli hospital pediatric departments in the winter months. In recent years two studies from developed countries have been published where safety has been demonstrated for home oxygen treatment for babies with AB. However, feasibility studies have not been published yet, for example for populations living in poor conditions. The General Health Services (Klalit) in Israel provides integrated hospital and community health service to the majority of the population living o in our region, thus presenting an opportunity for optimal interventions related to this disease.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
- Rate of hospital readmission within 10 days after discharge with home oxygen [ Time Frame: Within 10 days from discharge home with O2 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Readmission to the hospital because of (1) increased oxygen requirement (> 1 L\ minute through the nose) to maintain oxygen saturation of> 92%. (2) event of apnea. 3) feeding of less than 50% of normal with clinical evidence of dehydration, (4) the parents or pediatrician wish remove the child from the study.
|Study Start Date:||October 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||August 2014|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||June 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Home oxygen therapy
Infants with acute bronchiolitis of low to moderate severity will be discharged home with supplemental oxygen and monitored by phone calls and home visits.
Device: Home oxygen therapy
Oxygen will be provided using a generator, through nasal prongs at a flow rate up to 1 L/min.
During home stay the parents will be guided on how to suspect signs of clinical deterioration. General treatment: If oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter is greater than 92%, the oxygen will be reduced by a quarter liter per minute while monitoring for 15 minutes. If oxygen saturation decreased to less than 92% of the child will remain with the best previous oxygen flow until the next visit. Once the child reaches - 0.06 l / min for 15 minutes, he will will be checked back on room air. Cessation of oxygen therapy: when the oxygen saturation remains above 92% on room air. Every day that no home visit was performed a phone call will be done and follow-up questionnaire will be filled daily, including oxygen saturation registration.
Objective: To develop a model of community based safe handling of AB in various communities in southern Israel.
Methods: A prospective intervention study examining the safety and health expenditures in infants with AB treated first in hospital but then discharged earlier with home oxygen while monitored in the community.
Contribution to the focus areas, and the impact of results on health policy planning: 1) Reducing hospitalization days and general financial savings. 2) Ability to implement these findings to populations with variable socio-economic backgrounds. 3) Prevention of nosocomial infections related morbidity.
Innovation and uniqueness in the study: test of this hypothesis precisely in our region, where populations have different socio-economic backgrounds, will build a model that may be suitable for all levels of society.