Breast Cancer Screening Intervention
Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among Korean American (KA) women, but mammography utilization among KA women remains suboptimal. Most breast cancer screening studies with KA women have been descriptive and correlational. Therefore, in this 4-year project, the effects of Korean Immigrants & Mammography—Culture-Specific Health Intervention (KIM-CHI) on adherence to recommended breast cancer screening protocols were tested. The specific aims are to: (1) compare the group receiving KIM-CHI with an attention control group on mammogram attainment outcomes including number of mammograms obtained (0, 1, or 2) and if obtained, length of time to obtain the first mammogram, at 15 months using survival analysis; (2) compare the two groups on the mediating variables of health beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy, and spousal support at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 15 months using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance; and (3) identify the mediating effects of health beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy, and spousal support at 2 weeks on mammogram attainment outcomes at 15 months, using structural equation modeling. Data on mammography attainment and the mediating variables were collected at baseline and at 2-weeks, and 6- and 15-months post-baseline.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Screening
|Official Title:||Korean Immigrants & Mammography—Culture-Specific Health Intervention (KIM-CHI)|
- Change from baseline in mammography uptake at 15 months [ Time Frame: 6- and 15-months post-baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Non of the participants at baseline had a mammogram within the previous 1 year. The primary outcome was measured by self-report about how many times and when (month and year) mammograms were obtained by women in the study, with follow-up validation by the mammography facility for each woman who reports having had a mammogram in the past 15 months at Time 3. The number of mammograms (o, 1, or 2) and length of time to mammogram were calculated.
- Health beliefs [ Time Frame: 6- and 15-months post-baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]health beliefs (perceived seriousness, susceptibility, benefits, barriers, knowledge, self-efficacy about breast cancer and screening) were measured by using Likert-type scale, ranging from strongly disagree = 1 to strongly agree = 5.
- Spousal Support [ Time Frame: 6- and 15-months post-baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Women's perceived spousal support received from husbands and husbands' perceived spousal support provided to their wives were measured.
|Study Start Date:||August 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||October 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Health diet education
Education about improving diet using a DVD with Korean role models and native Korean language. It was an attention control group
The intervention is based on cultural characteristics and context and focuses on changing (1) beliefs about breast cancer and screening, (2) knowledge of breast cancer and screening, (3) self-efficacy of confidence in one's ability to complete all the steps necessary for obtaining a mammogram including requesting a referral for mammogram from a physician. The KIM-CHI program also incorporates strategies for enhancing spousal support (perceived support received from husband). To standardize delivery of culture-relevant health behavior change information related to breast cancer screening to groups of women and their husbands separately, the KIM-CHI program uses a DVD with Korean role models, native Korean language, and male physician authentication as well as inclusion of spouses.
Other Name: Healthy Diet
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