Effects of Learning and Food Form on Intake in Humans

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Richard Mattes, Purdue University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01490034
First received: December 5, 2011
Last updated: August 12, 2013
Last verified: August 2013
  Purpose

Due to the rising incidence of obesity, much emphasis has been placed on identifying mechanisms of increased energy intake. At this point, the mechanisms responsible for the recent increase in obesity prevalence have not been thoroughly examined. Pre-ingestive influences, such as cognitive factors, may play a larger role in creating an energy surplus than previously thought. Expectations about the satiating effect of a food may override the post-ingestive influences in dictating further consumption. In addition, obese individuals may exhibit a decreased compensatory response to foods as compared to lean individuals.

Understanding the effects of energy content, food form, and learning on satiation, satiety, and energy intake will allow for a greater understanding of the mechanisms of energy imbalance as a whole. Food choice is dictated by sensory properties and post-ingestive effects. By utilizing foods with similar sensory properties, the acquired knowledge derived from ingesting these foods can be monitored by analyzing subsequent intake at the same meal and at subsequent eating occurrences. It is hypothesized that the liquid food form will elicit weaker dietary compensation; that is, energy intake at other eating events will not be adjusted to compensate for that food. In addition, it is posited that the lower energy food will cause lower compensation postprandially. By having participants consume the same test food daily over a two week learning period, it is thought that they will show improved dietary compensation when the initial testing is repeated due to learned associations between food properties and metabolism.


Condition Intervention
Obesity
Behavioral: Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages
Behavioral: energy dense solid food
Behavioral: Energy dilute beverages
Behavioral: Energy dilute solid food

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Effects of Learning and Food Form on Intake in Humans

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Purdue University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • energy intake [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Energy consumed over 12 weeks of intervention.

  • dietary compensation [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    spontaneous dietary adjustment in response to intervention

  • appetite [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Effects of intervention on appetitive sensation such as hunger and fullness

  • effects of learning on energy intake [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The effects of learning based on exposure to products that are high or low in energy and liquid or solid

  • Effects of food form on energy intake [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The effects of food form on energy intake before and after chronic exposure to foods varying in food form and energy density

  • Effects of BMI on sensory learning [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The effects of BMI on appetite, energy intake and dietary compensation


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Effects of personality traits on appetite, energy intake and compensation [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Effects of personality traits related to feeding on appetite, energy intake and compensation following exposure to foods of different physical form, energy density and before and after learning.


Estimated Enrollment: 120
Study Start Date: September 2011
Estimated Study Completion Date: September 2013
Estimated Primary Completion Date: September 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Energy dense beverage
Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages before and after regular consumption
Behavioral: Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages
Consumption of energy dense beverages for 2 weeks and monitoring physiological responses
Other Name: Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages
Experimental: Energy dense solid food form
Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense solid foods before and after regular exposure.
Behavioral: energy dense solid food
Effects of consuming energy dense solid food for two weeks on physiological responses
Other Name: energy dense solid food
Experimental: Eenergy dilute beverages
Metabolic effects of consumption of energy dilute beverages on a regular basis.
Behavioral: Energy dilute beverages
Effects of consuming energy dilute beverages for two weeks on physiological responses.
Other Name: Energy dilute beverages
Experimental: Energy dilute solid food form
Metabolic effects of consuming energy dilute sold foods before and after regular exposure.
Behavioral: Energy dilute solid food
Effects of consuming energy dilute solid food for two weeks on physiological responses
Other Name: Energy dilute solid food

Detailed Description:

No expansion provided.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 50 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Weight stable (<3 kg weight change within last 3 months)
  • Constant habitual activity patterns (no deviation > 1x/wk at 30 min/session within last 3 months)
  • Constant habitual diet patterns within last 3 months
  • Willingness to eat a chocolate-flavored snack at test sessions and two week training period
  • No allergies to any test foods
  • Not planning to change use of medications known to influence appetite or metabolism
  • Not diabetic
  • No history of GI pathology
  • Non-smoker for one year or more

Exclusion Criteria:

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01490034

Locations
United States, Indiana
Purdue Univeristy
W. Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 47907
Sponsors and Collaborators
Purdue University
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Richard Mattes, Distinguished Professor, Purdue University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490034     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: R01DK079913-3
Study First Received: December 5, 2011
Last Updated: August 12, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by Purdue University:
obesity
energy intake
appetite
food form
beverage
learning
dietary compensation

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Obesity
Body Weight
Nutrition Disorders
Overnutrition
Overweight
Signs and Symptoms

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 20, 2014