Diet and Systemic Inflammation (DASI)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
University of Washington
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Kratz, Mario, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01424306
First received: August 24, 2011
Last updated: April 17, 2014
Last verified: April 2014
  Purpose

People with chronic low-grade inflammation have a higher risk for certain diseases such as cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes. While it is known that obese people are more likely to show signs of low-grade inflammation than lean individuals, it is unclear what causes this inflammation. In the proposed study, the investigators will examine whether the sugar fructose, when consumed in a sweetened beverage, triggers low-grade inflammation in healthy men and women compared with other caloric sweeteners.


Condition Intervention
Low-grade Chronic Inflammation
Intestinal Permeability
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cardiovascular Disease
Obesity
Other: Fructose-sweetened beverages
Other: Glucose-sweetened beverages
Other: High-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Diet and Systemic Inflammation

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Fasting plasma C-reactive protein [ Time Frame: Beginning (day 1) and end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The concentration of C-reactive protein in fasting plasma will be measured by high-sensitivity assay at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 9) of each 8-day dietary period.

  • Fasting plasma interleukin-6 [ Time Frame: Beginning (day 1) and end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The concentration of interleukin-6 in fasting plasma will be measured by high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 9) of each 8-day dietary period.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Fasting plasma total and high-molecular weight adiponectin [ Time Frame: Beginning (day 1) and end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The concentration of total and high-molecular weight adiponectin in fasting plasma will be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 9) of each 8-day dietary period.

  • Mean daily calorie intake [ Time Frame: The mean daily calorie intake during each of the 8-day diet periods will be calculated. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Mean daily calorie intake will be assessed during each of the three 8-day diet periods. All foods will be provided to the subjects in excess of what they are estimated to require, and calorie intake will be assessed by subtracting returned foods from foods administered.

  • Intestinal permeability, as assessed by the 5-hour urinary lactulose/mannitol test [ Time Frame: At the end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Intestinal permeability will be assessed on day 9 of each diet period by administering a beverage containing 2 g of mannitol and 5 g of lactulose followed by collecting urine for 5 hours afterwards. Recovery of mannitol and lactulose in urine will be measured by gas chromatography, and will be indicative of the degree of intestinal permeability.

  • Fasting plasma zonulin concentrations [ Time Frame: At the end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Zonulin concentrations will be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fasting plasma collected on day 9 of each diet period. Plasma zonulin is a marker of intestinal permeability.

  • Fasting plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) [ Time Frame: At the end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) will be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fasting plasma collected on day 9 of each diet period. LBP is an acute phase protein secreted by the liver in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) exposure.

  • Adipose tissue inflammation [ Time Frame: At the end (day 9) of each diet period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    A subgroup of the study population will be enrolled into an ancillary study that will aim to assess the effects of consuming fructose- vs. high-fructose corn syrup- vs. glucose-sweetened beverages on adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation will be assessed by (a) flow cytometric characterization of adipose tissue leukocytes, and (b) whole adipose tissue gene expression analysis. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples will be obtained from subjects enrolled into the ancillary study by needle aspiration biopsy on day 9 of each 8-day dietary period.


Enrollment: 24
Study Start Date: October 2011
Study Completion Date: April 2014
Primary Completion Date: April 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Fructose-sweetened beverages
In addition to consuming a standardized diet, subjects will be asked to consume 4 servings per day of a fructose-sweetened beverage for 8 days.
Other: Fructose-sweetened beverages
In addition to consuming a standardized diet, subjects will be asked to consume 4 servings per day of a fructose-sweetened beverage for 8 days. The amount of fructose consumed will be 25% of the subject's estimated daily calorie requirement.
Experimental: Glucose-sweetened beverages
In addition to consuming a standardized diet, subjects will be asked to consume 4 servings per day of a glucose-sweetened beverage for 8 days.
Other: Glucose-sweetened beverages
In addition to consuming a standardized diet, subjects will be asked to consume 4 servings per day of a glucose-sweetened beverage for 8 days. The amount of glucose consumed will be 25% of the subject's estimated daily calorie requirement.
Experimental: High-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages
In addition to consuming a standardized diet, subjects will be asked to consume 4 servings per day of a high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverage for 8 days.
Other: High-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages
In addition to consuming a standardized diet, subjects will be asked to consume 4 servings per day of a high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverage for 8 days. The amount of high-fructose corn syrup consumed will be 25% of the subject's estimated daily calorie requirement.

Detailed Description:

The objective of this proposal is to investigate whether fructose-sweetened beverages trigger low-grade systemic inflammation in healthy men and women. Low-grade systemic inflammation, specifically elevated plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While it is known that obesity is associated with inflammation, the causes of low-grade inflammation in humans are not well understood. In a pilot study, the consumption of large amounts of fructose-, but not glucose- or aspartame-sweetened beverages potently induced low-grade inflammation in healthy, lean, young men and women in as little as 8 days. The investigators propose to extend these findings by (a) enrolling a greater number of subjects, (b) enrolling obese as well as non-obese subjects, and (c) including a beverage that is sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS is one of the primary sugars consumed in the United States, and a major source of dietary fructose. Our primary specific aim is to assess whether the consumption of fructose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages promotes systemic low-grade inflammation, as measured by plasma concentrations of CRP and IL-6. The investigators hypothesize that plasma CRP and IL-6 concentrations will be elevated after consumption of fructose-containing beverages (fructose and HFCS) when compared to a glucose-sweetened beverage. Our secondary specific aim is to assess whether the consumption of fructose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages lowers plasma adiponectin concentrations. Specifically, the investigators hypothesize that total and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin concentrations in fasting plasma will be lower after subjects have consumed the fructose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, compared to a glucose-sweetened beverage.

The investigators will recruit 12 overweight/obese (BMI between 25.0 and 40 kg/m2) and 12 normal weight (BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2) men and women who are free of chronic inflammatory or metabolic disease. In a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, each subject will complete three 8-day standardized dietary periods that will differ only in the type of sweetened beverage administered. Specifically, subjects will be asked to drink four servings of a beverage each day that is sweetened with glucose, fructose, or HFCS (55% fructose, 45% glucose). All solid food will be provided for each of the three 8-day diet periods, and will be consumed ad libitum. Following each dietary period, the investigators will collect fasting blood to measure markers of systemic inflammation and plasma concentrations of total and HMW-adiponectin. We will also assess changes in adipose tissue inflammation and intestinal permeability as potential mechanisms by which fructose-sweetened beverages may trigger systemic inflammation. This study has the potential to identify a dietary trigger of low-grade inflammation, a likely contributor to CVD and metabolic diseases. The public health impact of this project might be considerable given that the consumption of fructose in the population is pervasive, and is modifiable on an individual as well as a population level.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age: 18-65 years;
  • BMI 20-40 kg/m2;
  • Weight stable to within 10 pounds for 6 months prior to entering the study, and at their lifetime maximum weight (or within 30 pounds of it; excluding pregnancy);
  • Ability to be admitted for ~30 minutes on three occasions, and ~6 hours on three occasions to the FHCRC Prevention Center;
  • Ability to provide informed written consent;
  • Willingness to consume only food and beverages provided by the Human Nutrition Laboratory of the FHCRC Prevention Center for three periods of 8 days each.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence or history of chronic inflammatory, autoimmune or metabolic diseases;
  • Presence of phenylketonuria, hereditary fructose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, or malabsorption syndromes;
  • Abuse of alcohol (>2 drinks per day), smoking, or use of recreational drugs;
  • Current or recent (within three months) intake of medications likely to interfere with study endpoints (insulin, antidiabetics, β-blockers, anabolic steroids, glucocorticosteroids, daily high-dose non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, antibiotics, probiotics);
  • Presence of anemia, recent (within 2 months) history of anemia;
  • Anyone not willing or able to eat the provided food;
  • Current or recent (within 12 months) pregnancy or breastfeeding.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01424306

Locations
United States, Washington
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98109
Sponsors and Collaborators
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
University of Washington
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Mario Kratz, MS, PhD Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Kratz, Mario, Associate Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01424306     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NHLBI R21 HL108257, R21HL108257
Study First Received: August 24, 2011
Last Updated: April 17, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center:
Inflammation
Intestinal permeability
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Cardiovascular disease
Obesity
Sweetened beverages
Sugar
Fructose
Glucose
High-fructose corn syrup

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cardiovascular Diseases
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Inflammation
Obesity
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Overnutrition
Nutrition Disorders
Overweight
Body Weight
Signs and Symptoms

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 28, 2014