Clown Care for Botulinum Toxin (BTX)
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergo multiple painful procedures such as Botulinum toxin (BTX) injections that are administered several times a year. While clown care reduces preoperative anxiety, its effect on painful procedures has not been assessed. We hypothesized that medical clowning reduces pain and anxiety during BTX injections.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
- Visual Analogue Scale [ Time Frame: sevral minutes before and after BTX injections ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Visual Analogue Scale by the child before after BTX injection. Parent rated the pain if the child was younger than 5 years or cognitively impaired
|Study Start Date:||January 2010|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Sham Comparator: Standard intervention
Preparation and information: the doctor and nurse explained the steps of the procedure: placing EMG electrodes, wiping the area with an alcohol swab, cooling with ethyl chloride, needle insertion into the muscle and the importance of EMG noise.
Memory change and positive reinforcement: medical staff present spoke to the child positively and offered prizes, among which the child could choose.
Volunteer attendance: as part of the control session, receiving no particular instructions in relation to the child's potential pain during the procedure.
Preparation and information regarding the BTX procedure: placing EMG electrodes, wiping the area with an alcohol swab, cooling with ethyl chloride, needle insertion into the muscle and the importance of EMG noise.
Injection performed under EMG guidance. Two sites of injection per muscle were used to enhance diffusion. The child could often see the procedure when the upper limb was treated but not during lower limb injections.
Memory change and positive reinforcement: Following the BTX injection, the medical staff present spoke to the child positively and offered prizes Volunteer attendance: In the daycare unit there are young volunteers routinely present, assisting with technical aspects of the procedure.
Experimental: clown care
Cognitive coping: encouraging a child to cope with the challenge. Imagery: a cognitive technique used to encourage the child to cope with the pain and distress of the procedure by imagining a pleasant object or experience Empowerment: the child is made to feel empowered by controlling the actions of the clown Reflecting emotions: the clown, sensing the state of the child, plays it out in an exaggerated fashion.
Behavioral: clown care
Cognitive coping Imagery Empowerment Reflecting emotions
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty five children with CP (mean age 7.4±4.8 years; 19 boys), enrolled in this randomized controlled study underwent BTX injections (3±1.7 muscles per procedure). Prior to treatment each child was assigned to receive either medical clown intervention (study) or standard care (control). Outcome measure was the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) as reported by the child (n =14) or parent (n =11) prior and subsequent to each procedure.