Topical Vitamin D3, Diclofenac or a Combination of Both to Treat Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent malignant tumor in Caucasians and the incidence is still increasing with 3-8% each year. Since BCCs generally occur on sun-exposed areas of the skin, the rice in incidence is mainly explained by the increasing exposure to (intermittent) ultraviolet radiation. Surgical excision is still the standard treatment for (micro)nodular BCCs. The costs as well as the increased workload are stressing the health care system even further and posing BCC an important health care problem. Since half of the BCCs arise primarily on the face & (bald) head and treatment by surgical excision may result in disfiguring scars, patients often experience a dramatic decrease of their quality of life. Hence, there is an urgent medical and societal need for a simple and cheap (targeted) treatment, preferably to be performed by the patients themselves. This treatment must be safe and effective. Such treatment is not available yet. BCC tumorigenesis is complex and must be multifactorial. Genetic alterations of multiple components of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway are involved in sporadic BCC pathogenesis; inactivating mutations in Patched-1 (PTCH1) and activating mutations of Smoothened (SMO) and Suppressor of Fused (SU(FU)). With this knowledge, inhibition of the SHH pathway by SMO antagonists was successfully administered, however treatment resulted only in partial clinical response ofBCC. Recently, involvement of the Wingless (Wnt) pathway has been proven to be essential in BCC tumorigenic response. Moreover, a recent study of our own department provides the first evidence that epigenetic alterations, particularly promoter hypermethylation, influence both the SHH and Wnt pathway (own data, not published), which can serve as therapeutic targets. Both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAlDS) and vitamin D derivatives are able to directly or indirectly target the Wnt pathway. Furthermore, vitamin D3 is able to inhibit Smoothened (SMO) in vitro, resulting in inhibition of the SHH pathway. Although in vivo studies are lacking, the investigators assume that topical application of these drugs may inhibit BCC growth and/or may cure BCC and thus might provide very promising future perspectives. Calcitriol and NSAlDs ointments are both already available for other indications and save in use. Eventually, our approach may result in a systematic approach to BCC, targeting (epi)genetic changes to treat and/or prevent further tumour growth.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Drug: Diclofenac + Calcitriol
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Topical Vitamin D3, Diclofenac or a Combination of Both to Treat Basal Cell Carcinoma|
- Histological changes in different proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy markers. [ Time Frame: At baseline and after 8 weeks. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]To determine whether topical application of Calcitriol (Silkis) 3 μg/g, Diclofenac 3% or a combination of both can lead to a 40% histological reduction (↓)/increase (↑) of expression of the following antibodies: Ki67 (↓), BCL2 (↓), CASPASE 3 (↑) and Cox2 (↓) (proliferation and apoptosis), LC3B (↑) (autophagy), HIF1α (↓) (hypoxia), β-catenin (↓), sFRP4 (↑) and sFRP5 (↑) (Wnt pathway activity).
- Macroscopic tumour changes [ Time Frame: Baseline and after 8 weeks. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]We want the observe if the tumour will also macroscopically change within 8 weeks of treatment. Things were we will focus on will be size and colour.
- Toleration [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]We want to evaluate if the patients will tolerate the therapy. Main points in here will be irritation of the skin and the amount of time this therapy costs the patients.
- Safety [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]We want to evaluate if the treatment is safe and does not lead to a lot of side effects.
|Study Start Date:||November 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||February 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Active Comparator: Solaraze||
Application on the lesion 2 times a day 8 weeks.
Other Name: Solaraze
|Active Comparator: Solaraze + Silkis||
Drug: Diclofenac + Calcitriol
Application on the lesion 2 times a day, both ointments, 8 weeks.
Other Name: Solaraze + Silkis
|Active Comparator: Silkis||
Application on the lesion, 2 times a day, 8 weeks.
Other Name: Silkis
|No Intervention: No treatment|