Metformin in Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy Trial (MiTy)

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified March 2014 by Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
University Health Network, Toronto
Sunnybrook Research Institute
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01353391
First received: May 2, 2011
Last updated: March 20, 2014
Last verified: March 2014
  Purpose

Insulin is the standard treatment for the management of type 2 diabetes in pregnancy, however despite treatment with insulin, these women continue to face increased rates of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The investigators hypothesize that metformin use, in addition to treatment with insulin, will help with blood sugar control, lower the dose of insulin needed, lower weight gain, and improve baby outcomes.


Condition Intervention Phase
Type 2 Diabetes
Drug: Metformin
Drug: Placebo Comparator
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Metformin in Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • A composite of: pregnancy loss, preterm birth, birth injury, respiratory distress, neonatal hypoglycemia, and NICU admission > 48 hours. [ Time Frame: conception to 28 days after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Large for gestational age (LGA) infants [ Time Frame: Up to 24 hours after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Defined as greater than the 90th percentile for weight, based on the National canadian fetal growth standards for singleton boys and girls.

  • Pregnancy loss [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Spontaneous abortion defined as death of a fetus at <20 weeks gestation; Stillbirth defined as death of a fetus with a birth weight ≥ 500g or at ≥ 20 wks gestational age regardless of birth weight; Neonatal death defined as death of a live born infant within the first 28 days of life or prior to hospital discharge, whichever is later.

  • Preterm birth [ Time Frame: Up to 37 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Birth < 37 weeks gestation

  • Respiratory distress [ Time Frame: within 72 hours after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Given surfactant via an endotracheal tube and/or requiring assisted positive pressure ventilation within 72 hours after birth.

  • Neonatal hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: NICU admission >24 hours ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    A plasma glucose <2.6 mmol/L on one or more occasions, starting at 30-60 minutes after birth, and necessitating intravenous dextrose within the first 48 hours of life.

  • NICU admission >24 hours [ Time Frame: NICU admission >24 hours ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Admission to a neonatal intensive or special care unit for > 24 hours during the initial hospitalization after birth

  • Cord blood gases <7.0 [ Time Frame: Within 4 hours of birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Hyperinsulinemia as measured by elevated cord blood C-peptide [ Time Frame: Within 4 hours of birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    A cord serum C-peptide value > 1.7 ug/L (which is >90th percentile of values for the total cohort of participants in the HAPO trial) will be defined as hyperinsulinemia.

  • Maternal glycemic control as measured by HbA1c and capillary glucose measurements. [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Gestational age at testing will be recorded. All downloaded glucose results will be transmitted on a regular basis to a central site for future analysis. Monthly correlations will be done with the laboratory during routine monthly blood draws.

  • Maternal hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Maternal hypoglycemia defined as mild (<3.6, symptomatic and asymptomatic or requiring treatment), or severe (loss of consciousness or confusion requiring assistance) will be documented at each visit.

  • Maternal weight gain [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The first and last weight will be obtained at the first and last visit in pregnancy, whether they be done by the endocrinologist, family physician or obstetrician.

  • Maternal insulin doses [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Maternal insulin doses (overall amount and number of patients that are taking 'high' insulin doses defined as 2 Units/kg or more per day)

  • Pre-eclampsia, and/or gestational hypertension [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Gestational hypertension: New onset of hypertension (diastolic of 90 mm Hg or higher) in pregnancy after 20 weeks gestation in a woman with previously normal blood pressure (124, 125).

    Pre-eclampsia: new-onset proteinuria, Eclampsia (Seizures in pregnancy), Elevated liver function tests, Decreased platelet count < 100 x 109/L, Elevated serum creatinine (> 80 mmol/L) or small for gestational age infant (birth weight less than 10%).


  • Sepsis [ Time Frame: Up to 28 days after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    A positive blood and/or cerebral spinal fluid culture during the neonatal hospital stay.

  • Hyperbilirubinemia [ Time Frame: First 7 days of life ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Significant jaundice was present based on bilirubin levels requiring treatment with phototherapy> 6 continuous hours, or an exchange transfusion, or receiving intravenous gamma globulin, or requiring readmission into hospital during the first 7 days of life.

  • Number of hospitalizations [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of hospitalizations prior to admission for delivery and the duration of hospital stays for the mother prior to admission for delivery and associated with delivery.

  • Rate of caesarean-section [ Time Frame: Up to 40 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Duration of hospital stay for infant. [ Time Frame: Up to 28 days after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Duration of hospital stay for infant associated with his/her birth until the first discharge home

  • Fetal fat mass [ Time Frame: Up to 7 days after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Fetal fat mass compared with women treated with insulin plus placebo

  • Birth Injury [ Time Frame: Up to 7 days after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Defined as any of the following: spinal cord injury, basal skull fracture or depressed skull fracture, clavicular fracture, long bone fracture, subdural or intracerebral hemorrhage or any kind


Estimated Enrollment: 500
Study Start Date: May 2011
Estimated Study Completion Date: December 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2016 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Metformin Drug: Metformin
500 mg daily OD from randomisation for 2 weeks, then 1000mg BID throughout the duration of pregnancy
Placebo Comparator: Sugar pill Drug: Placebo Comparator
Sugar Pill

Detailed Description:

Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy is increasing in prevalence and these women continue to face increased rates of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The investigators hypothesize that metformin use, as an adjunct to insulin, will decrease these adverse outcomes by reducing maternal hyperglycemia, high maternal insulin doses, excessive maternal weight gain and gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia, all of which should reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. In addition, since metformin crosses the placenta, metformin treatment of the fetus may have a direct beneficial effect on neonatal outcomes. This study is an randomized controlled trial (RCT) that adds metformin to insulin, and is a double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT. The investigators believe that neither metformin alone nor insulin alone will effectively treat this population, and therefore our design, which includes the addition of metformin to insulin, will be the most relevant to our patients.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Women who are between of 18-45 years of age
  • Women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes prior to pregnancy OR women with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes diagnosed prior to 20 weeks gestation [defined as women presenting with gestational diabetes before 20 weeks gestation with an elevated HbA1c which is 8% or more above the upper normal range (i.e. HbA1c of 6.5% if upper normal is 6.0%, or HbA1c 7% if upper normal is 6.5%) or fasting glucose >= 7.0 mmol/L]
  • Pregnancy gestation between 12 weeks 0 days - 22 weeks 6 days
  • Live singleton fetus.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Women who are not on insulin. Women who are on oral hypoglycemic agents should be switched to insulin prior to randomization
  • Diabetes diagnosed after 20 weeks gestation
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Known intolerance to metformin
  • Contraindications to metformin use which include: a) Renal insufficiency (defined as serum creatinine of greater than 130 umol/L or creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min b) Moderate to severe liver dysfunction (defined as liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal) c) Shock or sepsis d) Previous hypersensitivity to metformin
  • Women with significant gastrointestinal problems such as severe vomiting requiring intravenous fluids or hospitalization, or active Crohn's or colitis - - Previous participation in the trial
  • Patients who have a fetus with a known potentially lethal anomaly will be excluded. Information regarding congenital anomalies diagnosed after randomization will be recorded.
  • Known higher order pregnancies (twins, triplets, etc). These women will be excluded as they have a higher rate of adverse outcomes and we want to avoid any inequalities if they are unequally distributed between the groups
  • Presence of acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis
  • History of diabetic ketoacidosis or history of lactic acidosis
  • Presence of excessive alcohol intake, acute or chronic
  • Presence of congestive heart failure or history of congestive heart failure
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01353391

Contacts
Contact: Asma Qureshi, MPH 416-480-5631 mity@sunnybrook.ca
Contact: Johanna Sanchez, MIPH 416-480-5628 johanna.sanchez@sunnybrook.ca

Locations
Canada, Ontario
The Centre for Mother, Infant, and Child Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute Recruiting
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4N 3M5
Contact: Asma Qureshi, MPH    416-480-5631    mity@sunnybrook.ca   
Contact: Dalah Mason, MPH    416-480-5639    dalah.mason@sunnybrook.ca   
Sub-Investigator: Shital Gandhi, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
University Health Network, Toronto
Sunnybrook Research Institute
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Denice Feig, MD Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided

Responsible Party: Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01353391     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: MOP-106678
Study First Received: May 2, 2011
Last Updated: March 20, 2014
Health Authority: Canada: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Canada: Health Canada

Keywords provided by Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada:
Diabetes
MiTy
Metformin in Women
Type 2 Diabetes Pregnancy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Diabetes, Gestational
Pregnancy in Diabetics
Endocrine System Diseases
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Pregnancy Complications
Metformin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 20, 2014