YF476 in Patients With Type II Gastric Carcinoids Associated With Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare condition in which one or more tumors (gastrinomas), usually in the small intestine or pancreas, produce high levels of the hormone gastrin. High levels of gastrin can cause several problems: (1) excessive growth of stomach cells; (2) excessive production of stomach acid, which can cause stomach or intestinal ulcers; and (3) growth of an unusual type of stomach tumor called a type II gastric (i.e., stomach) carcinoid. Patients with ZES suffer mainly from the effects of severe ulcer disease, but gastrinomas and gastric carcinoids both have the potential to spread throughout the body. Gastric surgery is the usual treatment for problematic carcinoids. YF476, an experimental medication, may block the effects of gastrin, which may reduce the need for surgery as well as provide better control of stomach acid in patients with ZES. Researchers are interested in studying YF476 in individuals with ZES who also have or may develop type II gastric carcinoids.
- To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of YF476 in reducing the size, number, or significance of type II gastric carcinoids or their precancerous cells.
- To study the effects of YF476 on stomach acid production.
- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and type II gastric carcinoids or their precancerous cells.
- This study will involve a screening visit and five study visits.
- Participants will be screened with a physical examination and medical history, as well as blood tests.
- At the first study visit, participants will have an initial measurement of stomach acid production (gastric acid analysis) and an upper endoscopy to collect biopsies of esophagus, stomach, and small intestine tissue. Participants will receive YF476 to take by mouth once per day with food, and will be asked to keep a diary of medication doses, changes in symptoms, and any possible new symptoms or problems.
- After 3 weeks, participants will have another study visit with a physical examination, blood and urine tests, and questions about current condition and any side effects.
- After another 3 weeks (6 weeks after starting YF476), participants will have another gastric acid analysis and an upper endoscopy with biopsies. Participants may be eligible to receive a higher dose of YF476 if the endoscopy and biopsies show no significant change (decreased size and/or number of carcinoids or precancerous cells). If the stomach is completely normal at this visit on endoscopy and biopsy, participants will stop taking the study drug.
- After another 6 weeks (12 weeks after starting YF476), participants will have another physical examination, blood and urine tests, and an upper endoscopy with biopsies. YF476 will be stopped. Participants who show improvement after treatment will have a final followup visit. Participants who do not show improvement will not have the followup visit, but may be asked to return for additional clinic visits to check for side effects from YF476.
- The final visit will be a followup visit 12 weeks after the end of treatment with YF476. Participants who responded to YF476 will have blood tests and an upper endoscopy with biopsies.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Pilot Trial of YF476, A Gastrin Antagonist, in Patients With Type II Gastric Carcinoids Associated With Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome|
- To assess if YF476 can cause regression of gastric carcinoids in patients with ZES, defined as: a 25% reduction in the size or number of endoscopically evident type II gastric carcinoids; or a reduction of 25% in the gastric ECL cell density. [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- To assess if YF476: improves the histological grade of gastric carcinoids and/or ECL cell hyperplasia and affects the blood levels of biomarkers (e.g., gastrin, cahromogranin A [CgA]) [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||March 2011|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||December 2015|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||December 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Carcinoids are tumors derived from a special type of cell called a neuroendocrine cell. Most arise within the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric (stomach) carcinoid tumors arise from the type of neuroendocrine cells called enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. There are three types of gastric carcinoids. Types I (80%) and II (5%) gastric carcinoids develop in response to the high levels of the hormone gastrin associated with chronic atrophic gastritis/pernicious anemia and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), respectively. High levels of gastrin, in addition to stimulating acid secretion, can cause abnormal growth of ECL cells, which can lead to the development of gastric carcinoid tumors. Patients with ZES and the rare genetic condition multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) have a 20-30 fold higher chance of developing a gastric carcinoid than patients with ZES without MEN-1. Up to 20% of patients with ZES and MEN-1 develop type II gastric carcinoids, and in up to 30% of them, carcinoids will eventually
spread to other parts of the body (typically slowly). Gastric surgery is the usual treatment for carcinoids with features suggesting high risk of spreading. YF476 (netazepide), a potent, orally active, highly selective, blocker of gastrin receptors, might prevent the need for surgery as well as afford better control of the increased gastric acid secretion seen in patients with ZES. Non-clinical studies support the administration of YF476 to humans for up to 13 weeks. To date, YF476 has been given to 184 healthy subjects, and has been well tolerated. The pharmacological profile of YF476 in healthy subjects matches that of laboratory animals. The FDA and the EMA have designated YF476 an Orphan Drug for treatment of gastric carcinoids in the USA and the European Union, respectively.
The purpose of this protocol is to find out whether treatment with YF476 is safe and effective at achieving regression of type II gastric carcinoid tumors, or the abnormal growth of gastric ECL cells, in patients with ZES. We propose a single-center, phase II, open-label, pilot study of YF476 for up to 12 weeks (n=30). Based upon toxicology studies and initial studies in healthy volunteers, the first 6 patients will be started on 50 mg YF476 (2 x 25 mg) by mouth once daily. The dose may be increased to 75 or 100 mg once daily or reduced to 37.5 mg once daily according to an FDA algorithm based on the emerging safety profile of YF476. Patients will be followed for endoscopic, histological, quantitative PCR, and biochemical changes during treatment at weeks 6 and 12. The primary objective is to assess endoscopic and histological regression, defined as a 25% reduction in the size or number of endoscopically visible type II gastric carcinoids, or a reduction of 25% in the gastric ECL cell density. Secondary objectives are to assess if YF476 maintains control of gastric acid secretion and if it improves: the histological grade of gastric carcinoid tumors; biochemical markers; and ECL cell-specific products, assessed by quantitative PCR. Safety of YF476 will be monitored by: vital signs; ECGs; blood and urine tests; adverse experiences; and peak and trough plasma YF476 concentrations, to assess whether YF476 accumulates with dosing. Upper endoscopy with biopsy will be repeated 12 weeks after stopping YF476 in only those patients who respond to therapy.
|Contact: Stephen A Wank, M.D.||(301) email@example.com|
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike||Recruiting|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office (PRPL) 800-411-1222 ext TTY8664111010 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator:||Stephen A Wank, M.D.||National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)|