Real-time Adaptation to Changes in Insulin Sensitivity

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
W. Kenneth Ward, Legacy Health System
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01261052
First received: December 15, 2010
Last updated: November 29, 2012
Last verified: November 2012
  Purpose

The purpose of this research study is to test an automated blood glucose control system that includes a new component designed to adapt to stress. The importance of this component is that when Type 1 Diabetics are stressed (for example, from illness or infection), their body is resistant to the effects of insulin. The investigators will be adjusting their blood glucose using insulin and glucagon and making their body less sensitive to insulin with a steroid, hydrocortisone. Insulin is a hormone that lowers blood glucose. Glucagon raises blood glucose when it is low. Both are natural hormones made by people without diabetes. Hydrocortisone is a steroid that will increase their blood glucose temporarily and will be given every 4 hours. All subjects will participate in two 33 hour experiments. One experiment will use the adaptive version of the sensor-based glucose control system. The other study will use the original version of the control system, without the adaptive component, for the first 13 hours. Then, the adaptive component will be added to the glucose control system for the remaining 20 hours of the study. Our primary goal is to assess the effectiveness of the adaptive component to control glucose levels in the presence of steroid-induced insulin resistance in persons with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.


Condition Intervention Phase
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Device: The Fading Memory Proportional Derivative/Adaptive Proportional Derivative Algorithm
Device: The Adaptive Proportional Derivative Algorithm
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Sensor-Controlled Insulin and Glucagon Delivery in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes: Real-time Adaptation to Changes in Insulin Sensitivity

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Legacy Health System:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Measurement of the Effectiveness of APD and FMPD/APD Intervention in Adapting to Reduced Insulin Sensitivity [ Time Frame: all 33 hour studies ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The effectiveness of the APD and FMPD/APD intervention in adapting to reduced insulin sensitivity was analyzed using mean glucose.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Measurement of APD and FMPD/APD Interventions in Controlling Post-prandial Blood Glucose With Reduced Insulin Sensitivity. [ Time Frame: all 33 hour studies ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Assessment of control of post prandial hyperglycemia with APD and FMPD/APD interventions using mean post-prandial glucose (3 hours after meals).


Enrollment: 14
Study Start Date: November 2010
Study Completion Date: April 2011
Primary Completion Date: April 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: FMPD/APD intervention
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus subjects who fit the inclusion/exclusion criteria will undergo artificial pancreas closed-loop study for 33 hours. For the first 13 hours, the original artificial pancreas algorithm FMPD, will be used to control the subject's blood glucose. After 13 hours, the adaptive component or APD will be used to control the subject's blood glucose for the remaining 20 hours.
Device: The Fading Memory Proportional Derivative/Adaptive Proportional Derivative Algorithm

The APD algorithm is based largely on a program that employs the Fading Memory Proportional Derivative (FMPD) insulin and glucagon infusion algorithm. The FMPD algorithm determines insulin and glucagon delivery rates based on proportional error, defined as the difference between the current glucose level and the target level, and the derivative error, defined as the rate of change of the glucose. The "fading memory" designation refers to weighting recent errors more heavily than remote errors.

The APD algorithm, like the FMPD algorithm, will determine insulin and glucagon infusion rates based on sensed glucose values and utilizes the derivative and proportional glucose error to determine delivery rates of insulin. However, the APD algorithm has a model predictive element which also leads to frequent measurement of tissue sensitivity to insulin.

Active Comparator: APD only intervention
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus subjects who fit the inclusion/exclusion criteria will undergo artificial pancreas closed-loop study for 33 hours. For the entire study, the adaptive component or APD will be used to control the subject's blood glucose.
Device: The Adaptive Proportional Derivative Algorithm

The APD algorithm is based largely on a program that employs the Fading Memory Proportional Derivative (FMPD) insulin and glucagon infusion algorithm. The FMPD algorithm determines insulin and glucagon delivery rates based on proportional error, defined as the difference between the current glucose level and the target level, and the derivative error, defined as the rate of change of the glucose. The "fading memory" designation refers to weighting recent errors more heavily than remote errors.

The APD algorithm, like the FMPD algorithm, will determine insulin and glucagon infusion rates based on sensed glucose values and utilizes the derivative and proportional glucose error to determine delivery rates of insulin. However, the APD algorithm has a model predictive element which also leads to frequent measurement of tissue sensitivity to insulin.


  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 65 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus for at least 1 year
  • Male or Female subjects 21 to 65 years of age
  • Willingness to follow all study procedures, including attending all clinic visits
  • Willingness to sign informed consent and HIPAA documents.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy or Lactation: For women of childbearing potential: there is a requirement for a negative urine pregnancy test and for agreement to use contraception during the study and for at least 1 month after participating in the study. Acceptable contraception includes birth control pill / patch / vaginal ring, Depo-Provera, Norplant, an IUD, the double barrier method (the woman uses a diaphragm and spermicide and the man uses a condom), or abstinence.
  • Renal insufficiency (serum creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL or greater).
  • Serum ALT or AST equal to or greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal; hepatic synthetic insufficiency as defined as a serum albumin of less than 3.3 g/dL; or serum bilirubin of over 2.
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Hematocrit of less than or equal to 34%.
  • A history of cerebrovascular disease or coronary artery disease regardless of the time since occurrence.
  • Congestive heart failure, NYHA class III or IV.
  • Cardiac rhythm disturbance characterized by: 2nd or 3rd degree heart block, bradycardia of less than 50 bpm (exception of bradycardia in an aerobic athlete), tachycardia of greater than 100 bpm, or any arrhythmia judged by the investigator to be exclusionary.
  • Any active infection.
  • Visual impairment preventing reading of glucose meter values or continuous glucose monitoring device.
  • Physical impairment impeding the ability to use a glucose meter or glucose monitoring device.
  • Active foot ulceration.
  • Severe peripheral arterial disease characterized by ischemic rest pain or severe claudication.
  • Active alcohol abuse, substance abuse, or severe mental illness (as judged by the principal investigator).
  • Active malignancy, except basal cell or squamous cell skin cancers.
  • Major surgical operation within 30 days prior to screening.
  • Seizure disorder.
  • Any concurrent illness, other than diabetes, that is not controlled by a stable therapeutic regimen.
  • Chronic usage of any immunosuppressive medication (such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, sirolimus, or tacrolimus).
  • Current administration of oral or parenteral corticosteroids.
  • Use of an investigational drug within 30 days prior to screening.
  • Bleeding disorder, treatment with warfarin, or platelet count below 50,000.
  • History of major non-compliance.
  • Allergy to aspart insulin.
  • Allergy to glucagon.
  • Past history of pheochromocytoma or a family history of MEN 2, neurofibromatosis, or von Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • Insulin resistance requiring more than 200 units per day.
  • Need for uninterrupted treatment of acetaminophen.
  • Intolerance of mild hypoglycemia (glucose 60-70 mg/dl).
  • Patients using all dietary supplements (except for vitamin supplements, calcium or vitamin D in standard doses).
  • Patients with a history of glaucoma or who have not had an ophthalmologic exam in the previous 2 years (because of the risk of increased intraocular pressure)
  • Patients with a history of psychiatric disease or steroid-induced psychosis.
  • Patients currently on estrogen supplementation (low dose estrogen contraceptives are not exclusionary).
  • Chronic use of dietary supplements that contain adrenal cell extracts, adrenal cortical extracts, or other hormones.
  • The use of dietary supplements (except for vitamin supplements, calcium or vitamin D in standard doses) will be exclusionary (unless the subjects agrees to abstain from taking such supplements for three weeks before beginning the study.
  • Administration of an immunization (such as a flu or travel immunization) or plans to receive such an immunization within one week of beginning of the study.
  • Any reason the principal investigator deems exclusionary.
  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01261052

Locations
United States, Oregon
Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97210
Sponsors and Collaborators
Legacy Health System
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
Investigators
Principal Investigator: W K Ward, MD Legacy Health Research
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: W. Kenneth Ward, Senior Scientist, Legacy Health System
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01261052     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2010.005
Study First Received: December 15, 2010
Results First Received: October 2, 2012
Last Updated: November 29, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Legacy Health System:
glucose sensors
artificial pancreas
Diabetes Mellitus

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Insulin Resistance
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Hyperinsulinism
Insulin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 22, 2014