Oral Malodour and Periodontal Disease-related Parameters
The primary aim of the current study was to determine the association between halitosis detection (presence or absence) and periodontal status in non-smoking subjects, and also assess whether halitosis recordings were related to periodontal clinical parameters, tongue coating and quantities of two putative periodontal pathogens on the posterior region of the tongue determined by real-time PCR. Secondary, halitosis recordings were compared among subjects with chronic periodontitis, chronic generalized gingivitis and periodontal health.
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Case Control
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
|Official Title:||Oral Malodour and Periodontal Disease-related Parameters. Clinical and Real-time PCR Findings|
- Halitosis presence [ Time Frame: At a single time point ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Subjects were designated as halitosis positive (+) when either the organoleptic score of the whole mouth air was two or more, and/or the readings of the Halimeter® exceeded 140 p.p.b.
- Tongue coating [ Time Frame: At a single time point ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Assessment of tongue coating:
The Winkel Tongue Coating Index (Winkel et al., 2003) was visually determined by dividing the dorsum of the tongue into sextants. A score between zero and two was given to each sextant according to the amount of deposits and these scores were added giving a total ranging from zero to 12.
- Putative periodontal pathogens [ Time Frame: At a single time point ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]A specimen was collected from the rear of the tongue dorsum for quantitative analysis of two putative periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum, by real-time PCR.
- Periodontal clinical indices [ Time Frame: At a single time point ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]plaque index, clinical probing depth, clinical attachment levels and bleeding on probing.
Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA
The tongue coating was collected with repeated strokes under relative pressure, using a sterile plastic microbiology loop of 10μl capacity from the terminal sulcus to the apex of the tongue. Samples were stored on ice in 1.5ml sterile Eppendorf tubes containing 0.4ml purified H2O. After vortex mixing for 30 seconds to evenly disperse the material the samples were stored at -70oC until required. The laboratory analysis was performed blind. Once thawed the tongue specimen was vortex mixed for 30 seconds and an aliquot was taken for subsequent use in the real-time PCR analysis. Lysates of samples were prepared by boiling the aliquot for 10 minutes after puncturing the cap with a fine sterile needle to prevent pressure build up.
|Study Start Date:||January 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||September 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||January 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Chronic periodontitis patients
Chronic periodontitis patients had at least one site per quadrant with clinical probing depth (CPD) > 5mm and radiographic evidence of bone loss
Generalised chronic gingivitis patients
Generalised chronic gingivitis patients presented with bleeding on probing (BOP) at > 30% of sites, CPDs < 4mm and no evidence of bone loss
Periodontally healthy subjects
Healthy subjects had < 10% sites with BOP and no sites with CPD > 3mm
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|Dental School, Aristotle University|
|Thessaloniki, Greece, 54124|
|Study Chair:||Antonis Konstantinidis, Professor||Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Biology of Implants, Dental School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece|