Low-Dose Azacitidine, Lenalidomide, and Low-Dose Dexamethasone in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified September 2013 by Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01155583
First received: June 30, 2010
Last updated: March 27, 2014
Last verified: September 2013
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as azacitidine and dexamethasone, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Biological therapies, such as lenalidomide, may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop cancer cells from growing. Giving azacitidine together with lenalidomide and dexamethasone may kill more cancer cells.

PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of azacitidine when given together with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone in treating patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.


Condition Intervention Phase
Refractory Multiple Myeloma
Drug: azacitidine
Drug: lenalidomide
Drug: dexamethasone
Other: DNA methylation analysis
Other: gene expression analysis
Other: bone marrow aspiration
Other: immunohistochemistry staining method
Other: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
Other: flow cytometry
Phase 1
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Endpoint Classification: Safety Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Trial Of Very Low to Low-Doses of Continuous Azacitidine in Combination With Standard Doses of Lenalidomide and Low-Dose Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Case Comprehensive Cancer Center:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Phase I: Highest tolerated low dose (HTLD) [ Time Frame: during the first 28-day cycle ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    azacitidine given at low but increasing doses up to 50mg/m2 twice a week

  • Phase II: Response rate as evidence of progressive or new bone lesions [ Time Frame: after 6 months (cycles) of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Response according to international response criteria (>= PR) and clinical benefit response (>= minor response according to adapted EBMT criteria). Determined with serum and 24 hour urine protein electrophoresis, and as appropriate, supplemented by immunofixation, serum free light chain assay, and bone marrow examination. Response before high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplant will also be confirmed by two separate blood and 24 hour urine tests between the last dose of combination therapy and the first dose of the mobilizing agent.

  • Phase II: Response rate as evidence of progressive or new bone lesions [ Time Frame: after 12 months (cycles) of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Response according to international response criteria (>= PR) and clinical benefit response (>= minor response according to adapted EBMT criteria). Determined with serum and 24 hour urine protein electrophoresis, and as appropriate, supplemented by immunofixation, serum free light chain assay, and bone marrow examination. Response before high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplant will also be confirmed by two separate blood and 24 hour urine tests between the last dose of combination therapy and the first dose of the mobilizing agent.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Progression-free survival [ Time Frame: followed up every 3 months for 3 years. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Overall survival [ Time Frame: followed up every 3 months for 3 years. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • CD34+ cell yield and time to neutrophil and platelet recovery [ Time Frame: after cycle 1 (28 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    CD34+ cell yield will be calculated based on flow cytometry of mononuclear cells harvested following stem cell mobilization. Time to neutrophil (> 1,000/mm3) and platelet (> 100,000/mm3) recovery will be counted from the day of stem cell infusion (=day 0)

  • Promoter demethylation and gene reactivation [ Time Frame: within 7 days before treatment start and at the end of cycle #1 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Promoter demethylation and gene reactivation will be measured at least at the HTLD level using the Illumina® HumanMethylation27 BeadChip array on CD138 purified and CD34 purified cells obtained from bone marrow aspirates

  • Changes in global gene expression [ Time Frame: before and after the first cycle of therapy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The RNA harvested from myeloma cells before and after the first cycle of therapy at the HTLD level will furthermore be used to identify changes in global gene expression using the Illumina® HT12 array.

  • Quantify the activity of azacitidine inactivating enzyme cytidine deaminase (CDA) [ Time Frame: at 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Plasma from peripheral blood draws will be used to quantify the activity of CDA using an HPLC method.The enzymatic activity is determined by comparison of cytidine deamination achieved by plasma samples with deamination achieved by incubation of cytidine with dilutions of pure CDA enzyme standards.


Estimated Enrollment: 40
Study Start Date: June 2010
Estimated Primary Completion Date: September 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Arm I
Patients receive azacitidine subcutaneously once or twice weekly and oral dexamethasone once weekly starting on day 1. Patients also receive oral lenalidomide once daily on days 1-21. Treatment repeats every 28 days for 6 courses. Patients then continue to receive lenalidomide as maintenance therapy. Treatment continues in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Drug: azacitidine
Given SC
Other Names:
  • 5-AC
  • 5-azacytidine
  • 5-AZC
  • azacytidine
  • ladakamycin
  • Vidaza
Drug: lenalidomide
Given orally
Other Names:
  • CC-5013
  • IMiD-1
  • Revlimid
Drug: dexamethasone
Given orally
Other Names:
  • Aeroseb-Dex
  • Decaderm
  • Decadron
  • Decaspray
  • DM
  • DXM
Other: DNA methylation analysis
Correlative studies
Other: gene expression analysis
Correlative studies
Other: bone marrow aspiration
Correlative studies
Other: immunohistochemistry staining method
Correlative studies
Other Name: immunohistochemistry
Other: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
Correlative studies
Other Name: RT-PCR
Other: flow cytometry
Correlative studies

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

Phase I: Define the highest tolerated low dose (HTLD) and safety of azacitidine given at low but increasing doses up to 50mg/m2 twice a week concurrently with standard dose lenalidomide and low dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Phase II: Response according to international response criteria (>= PR) and clinical benefit response (>= minor response according to adapted EBMT (European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) criteria). PR=partial response

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

  • Correlate response with plasma activity of the azacitidine inactivating enzyme cytidine deaminase (CDA)
  • Progression-free survival and overall survival
  • Peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) yield and time to neutrophil and platelet recovery in patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation
  • Promoter demethylation and gene reactivation in myeloma cells and hematopoietic progenitors treated at the HTLD level after cycle 1
  • Changes in global gene expression in myeloma cells treated at the HTLD level after cycle 1

OUTLINE:

This is a phase I, dose-escalation study of azacitidine followed by a phase II study.

Patients receive azacitidine subcutaneously once or twice weekly and oral dexamethasone once weekly starting on day 1. Patients also receive oral lenalidomide once daily on days 1-21. Treatment repeats every 28 days for 6 courses. Patients then continue to receive lenalidomide as maintenance therapy. Treatment continues in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for 3 years.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Understand and voluntarily sign an informed consent form
  • Age ≥18 years at the time of signing the informed consent form
  • Able to adhere to the study visit schedule and other protocol requirements
  • Refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma
  • Measurable disease defined as at least one of the following: Serum m-spike >= 1g/dL, urine m-spike >= 200mg/24hrs, serum free light chains >= 100mg/L (provided the kappa/lambda ratio is abnormal), or bone marrow plasma cells >= 30%
  • Previous therapy with IMiD™ compounds (thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib), and corticosteroids must be discontinued at least 14 days before entry onto this study.
  • Previous cytotoxic chemotherapy (e.g. alkylating chemotherapy, anthracyclines, and vinca alkaloids), radiation therapy to the pelvis, and any experimental therapy other than carfilzomib or pomalidomide must have been discontinued at least 28 days prior to entry onto this study.
  • ECOG performance status of ≤ 2 at study entry (see Appendix II).
  • Laboratory test results within these ranges:

    • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,500 /mm³
    • Platelet count ≥ 75,000/mm³
    • Calculated creatinine clearance (Cockroft-Gault) ≥ 30ml/min.
    • Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN
    • Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) levels ≤2 x ULN
  • All study participants must be registered into the mandatory RevAssist® program, and be willing and able to comply with the requirements of RevAssist®.
  • Females of childbearing potential (FCBP)must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 50 mIU/mL within 10 - 14 days prior to and again within 24 hours of prescribing lenalidomide (prescriptions must be filled within 7 days) and must either commit to continued abstinence from heterosexual intercourse or begin TWO acceptable methods of birth control, one highly effective method and one additional effective method AT THE SAME TIME, at least 28 days before she starts taking lenalidomide. FCBP must also agree to ongoing pregnancy testing. Men must agree to use a latex condom during sexual contact with a FCBP even if they have had a successful vasectomy. See Appendix: Risks of Fetal Exposure, Pregnancy Testing Guidelines and Acceptable Birth Control Methods.
  • Able to take aspirin (81 or 325 mg) daily as prophylactic anticoagulation (patients intolerant to ASA may use warfarin or low molecular weight heparin) if no additional risk factor for VTE other than myeloma diagnosis according to IMW guidelines
  • Able to take low molecular weight heparin or warfarin if >1 additional risk factor for VTE according to IMW guidelines

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any serious medical condition, laboratory abnormality, or psychiatric illness that would prevent the subject from signing the informed consent form
  • Pregnant or breast feeding females (Lactating females must agree not to breast feed while taking lenalidomide or azacitidine)
  • Any condition, including the presence of laboratory abnormalities, which places the subject at unacceptable risk if he/she were to participate in the study or confounds the ability to interpret data from the study
  • Use of any experimental drug or therapy other than carfilzomib and pomalidomide within 28 days of treatment start on this protocol.
  • Neuropathy > Grade 2
  • Known hypersensitivity to thalidomide, lenalidomide, azacitidine, or mannitol
  • The development of erythema nodosum if characterized by a desquamating rash while taking thalidomide or lenalidomide drugs
  • Concurrent use of other anti-cancer agents or treatments, concurrent radiation to the pelvis. Palliative radiation to areas outside the pelvis is allowed
  • Previous inability to tolerate full-dose lenalidomide, adjusted to creatinine clearance (CrCl) according to Cockroft-Gault at the time of previous lenalidomide treatment (25mg day 1-21 every 28 days if CrCl > 60ml/min, 10mg lenalidomide d1-21 every 28 days if CrCl < 60mL/min but > 30mL/min, lenalidomide 15mg every 48 h d1-21 every 28 days if CrCl < 30mL/min but not requiring dialysis, lenalidomide 5mg daily, day 1-21 every 28 days if CrCl < 30mL/min and requiring dialysis).
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01155583

Locations
United States, Ohio
Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center Recruiting
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
Contact: Frederic Reu    216-636-0200    reuf@ccf.org   
Principal Investigator: Frederic Reu         
Case Medical Center, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center Recruiting
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44106
Contact: Erica Campagnaro, MD    216-844-3951    erica.campagnaro@uhhospitals.org   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Frederic Reu Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
Principal Investigator: Erica Campagnaro, MD Case Medical Center, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01155583     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CASE1A09, NCI-2010-01139, CASE1A09
Study First Received: June 30, 2010
Last Updated: March 27, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Paraproteinemias
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Azacitidine
BB 1101
Lenalidomide
Dexamethasone
Thalidomide
Dexamethasone acetate
Dexamethasone 21-phosphate
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Enzyme Inhibitors
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antiemetics

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 20, 2014