A Study to Assess the Analgesia and Sedation Using Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Third Molar Surgery Under Local Anaesthesia
Dental procedures such as wisdom tooth removal evoke very high levels of patients' anxiety and it is, therefore, common practice to provide concomitant pharmacologic sedation.
Sedative agents can be administered by the oral, rectal, intra muscular and intravenous routes. The oldest, safest and most convenient route at present is the oral route. However, as Uygur-Bayramicli et al. mentioned that administering the drugs orally can result in problems like delayed effect. Intranasal administration is a straightforward procedure. It is simple and relatively painless. Although it may be objectionable, less patient cooperation is required than with oral administration, especially in which the child must swallow the medication.
Many studies on dental sedation have been carried out by anesthesiologists but there is no ideal drug that can offer effects of both sedation and analgesia. Some drugs offer only one effect and others are not safe enough for clinical use. Midazolam, a benzodiazepine drug, is the traditional choice for sedation, but it has properties such as relatively slow onset and no analgesia. Propofol is an alkylphenol sedative and hypnotic agent with a rapid onset and offset. It has been used in patient controlled sedation before. But it has no analgesic properties. It can provide some antegrade amnesia, but it is not as reliable an amnestic as the benzodiazepine drugs. Because of these characteristics, propofol often is supplemented with narcotics and benzodiazepines. Although not irritant, it can cause pain during intravenous infusion.
A new drug, an alpha agonist with its relatively high ratio of α2/α1-activity (1620:1 as compared with 220:1 for clonidine) of theα2 receptor is dexmedetomidine. This property may lead to more potent effects of both sedation and analgesia without unwanted cardiovascular effects fromα1 receptor activation. Most of the data evaluating the use of dexmedetomidine in the intensive care unit (ICU) were obtained in the immediate postoperative period, mainly in patients who underwent open-heart surgery. Currently, clinicians are awaiting studies in broader patient populations. In the studies that have been completed to date, sedation has been attained easily with maintenance of respiratory function. Patients are readily arousable. There is a minimal increase in blood pressure initially, followed by a slight decrease in blood pressure. Lower dose ranges, avoidance of rapid bolus injection, and a slow rate of administration tend to decrease these circulatory side effects. So many clinical studies have shown that it can be well and safely used intravenously, intramuscularly and transdermally. Although not an officially technique, there are also reports of intranasal administration resulting in fairly predictable onset in both adults and children.
The investigators propose that intranasal can help to improve postoperative pain relief with better sedation.
- Pain scores after operation
- Sedation satisfaction
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Intranasal nasal saline
Intranasal nasal saline
Active Comparator: Dexmedetomidine
Drug: Intranasal dexmedetomidine
1mcg per kg dexmedetomidine given intranasally 45 minutes before operation
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01132794
|Department of Anaesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong|
|Hong Kong, Hong Kong|