A Study of Intraventricular Liposomal Encapsulated Ara-C (DepoCyt) in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma
Current treatments for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common and malignant primary brain tumor are inadequate and as such, the median survival for most patients with GBM is on the order of months, even after cytoreductive surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. This study aims to develop a new treatment for GBM by suppressing glial progenitor cells that surround the ventricular system in patients with these aggressive tumors because it is these regions that appear to act as an incubator for future recurrences resulting in patient death. Considering the lack of significant treatment options for patients with this uniformly fatal disease, this is an important translational clinical study to perform.
Drug: Intrathecal liposomal Ara-C + Temozolomide
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Phase I/II Intraventricular DepoCyt (OD # 06-2348) in Glioblastoma (76,730, 11/06)|
- To determine the safety, tolerability and MTD of intraventricular (ITV) liposomal cytarabine (DepoCyt) in combination with oral temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). [ Time Frame: 4 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
- To estimate the proportion of patients with recurrent GBM treated with ITV DepoCyt in combination with oral temozolomide who are progression-free at 16 weeks. [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||September 2009|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||September 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: ITV DepoCyt + metronomic TMZ
Patients will undergo an induction phase of intraventricular (ITV) DepoCyt, using the dosage determined from the Phase I portion of the study every two weeks (+/- 3 days) for one month (Cycles 1, 2). Patients with stable disease (clinically and radiographically), not exhibiting systemic toxicity, will undergo a three month consolidation phase of ITV DepoCyt, for one month (Cycles 3-6). Patients without progression or toxicity will undergo maintenance therapy using ITV DepoCyt every four weeks (+/- 3 days) for a maximum of 8 months (cycles 7-14) or until recurrence or toxicity ensues. Oral metronomic Temozolomide dosing of 75 mg/m2 daily for 21 days followed by 7 days off will be given throughout the Induction, Consolidation, and Maintenance Phases of the ITV DepoCyt described above.
Drug: Intrathecal liposomal Ara-C + Temozolomide
Intrathecal liposomal Ara-C dosing will begin at 50 mg ITV every 2-4 weeks, and de-escalated based on toxicity obtained from the Phase I portion of the trial. Metronomic dosing of temozolomide will be given at 75 mg/m2 for 21 days (continuous oral dosing), followed by 7 days off in a 28 day cycle as a once daily dosing regimen.
Despite significant improvements in diagnostic imaging and neurosurgical techniques, the current treatment modalities for high-grade gliomas are inadequate. As such, the median survival for most patients with GBM is on the order of months, even after cytoreductive surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Fewer than 3% of GBM patients are still alive at 5 years after diagnosis. A rising incidence has been reported for GBM, and the survival rate for patients with GBM has not shown improvement in the last two decades. For this reason exploring novel therapies for the treatment of GBM is warranted.
Neuro-oncology is currently in the midst of a paradigm shift in terms of our accepted understanding of the pathophysiology of gliomagenesis. Classic "dedifferentiation" hypotheses, modeling the cellular origin of gliomas after neoplastic transformation of differentiated glia, are currently being challenged by hypotheses suggesting dysregulated glial progenitor cells are responsible for gliomagenesis. Growing evidence exists that glial progenitor cells persisting in the adult mammalian brain, lining the lateral ventricles in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus, play a role in gliomagenesis. Gliomas frequently occur in close proximity to the ventricular system and SVZ with high-grade lesions like GBM "spreading" to midline structures and crossing the corpus callosum to the contralateral hemisphere. Glial progenitor cells lining the lateral ventricles in the SVZ and dentate gyrus may be the source of "tumor" cells "spreading" to midline structures such as the corpus callosum as well as continuously replenishing the tumor bed resulting in local recurrences.
The lack of significant clinical advances in treating GBM may be due to oversight of the SVZ component of this disease. It is our hypothesis that successful treatment of GBM will require suppression of the SVZ component in addition to the currently accepted modalities of hemispheric tumor resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy. This understanding of gliomagenesis has not yet been used clinically for the treatment of GBM. We hypothesize that the SVZ is the incubator for future recurrences of GBM and propose targeting SVZ progenitor cells with intraventricular liposomal encapsulated Ara-C (DepoCyt) in combination with systemic metronomic dose temozolomide. Ara-C has been previously demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation and migration of SVZ precursor cells in adult animals. Two patients treated using this novel regimen have demonstrated significant responses warranting further study of this treatment in the Phase I/II clinical trial proposed here. This has also been the basis for successful application and granting of Orphan-Drug designation for cytarabine (Ara-C) liposome injection (trade name: DepoCyt) for the treatment of gliomas (Designation # 06-2348) on January 30, 2007.
|United States, South Carolina|
|Medical University of South Carolina|
|Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 29425|
|Principal Investigator:||Bruce M Frankel, MD||Medical University of South Carolina, Dept. of Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery|