Recent studies from both human and mice cancer models have demonstrated a crucial role for monocytes/macrophages in contributing to cancer progression and disease prognosis. However, since each cancer subtypes is associated with a unique tumor microenvironment in terms of its anatomical location, cytokine/chemokine profiles and stromal components, the functional contribution of tumor infiltrating cells such as the monocytes/macrophages can be equally diverse, depending on the type of cancer. Therefore to obtain a global understanding of the role of host immune cells in cancer progression, it is necessary to accurately characterize these cells in the context of the tumor microenvironment for several cancer subtypes rather than a single cancer. In view of this, this pilot proposal aims to carryout a systems approach in characterizing the functional phenotype of monocyte/macrophage lineage in 4 diverse human cancer types [e.g., Colorectal Cancer, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hepatocellular (liver) cancer and Renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer)] and the molecular basis of tumor-induced immunosuppression in each of these conditions. Besides providing a global view of the host innate immunity and its molecular basis in these human cancer, the outcome of this investigation will be crucial in defining the scopes of specific immunotherapy strategies to overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression and induce monocyte/macrophage-mediated antitumor response.