Effect of Sevelamer Carbonate on Oxidative Stress in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00967629
First received: August 26, 2009
Last updated: November 16, 2011
Last verified: November 2011
  Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine whether oral sevelamer carbonate binds advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients with diabetic nephropathy leading to decrease body AGE load and therefore decreases the inflammation and oxidative stress in these patients.


Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetic Nephropathy
Drug: Sevelamer Carbonate
Drug: Calcium Carbonate
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effect of Sevelamer Carbonate on Oxidative Stress in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Mount Sinai School of Medicine:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • serum AGE levels [ Time Frame: baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To compare the effect of Sevelamer Carbonate versus calcium carbonate on serum AGE levels in patients with stage II-IV chronic kidney disease resulting from diabetic nephropathy from baseline to 2 months and to 4 months later.

  • serum AGE levels [ Time Frame: at 2 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To compare the effect of Sevelamer Carbonate versus calcium carbonate on serum AGE levels in patients with stage II-IV chronic kidney disease resulting from diabetic nephropathy from baseline to 2 months and to 4 months later.

  • serum AGE levels [ Time Frame: at 4 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To compare the effect of Sevelamer Carbonate versus calcium carbonate on serum AGE levels in patients with stage II-IV chronic kidney disease resulting from diabetic nephropathy from baseline to 2 months and to 4 months later.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To compare the effect of sevelamer carbonate versus calcium carbonate on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid levels in patients with stage II-IV CKD resulting from diabetic nephropathy.

  • inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: at 2 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To compare the effect of sevelamer carbonate versus calcium carbonate on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid levels in patients with stage II-IV CKD resulting from diabetic nephropathy.

  • inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: at 4 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To compare the effect of sevelamer carbonate versus calcium carbonate on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid levels in patients with stage II-IV CKD resulting from diabetic nephropathy.


Enrollment: 20
Study Start Date: June 2009
Study Completion Date: February 2010
Primary Completion Date: February 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Sevelamer Carbonate crossover
Participants will be patients with stage II-IV CKD due to diabetic nephropathy randomized to start either with sevelamer carbonate or calcium carbonate
Drug: Sevelamer Carbonate
This is a 4 month, prospective, comparative, crossover study. The study will be conducted in 20 patients with stage II, III or stage IV diabetic nephropathy. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either 1,250 mg of calcium carbonate TID with meals (control arm) or Sevelamer Carbonate 1,600 mg (two 800 mg tablets) with meals. Each group of 10 subjects will take the assigned drug for 8 weeks. Following the 8 week treatment period, subjects will discontinue the assigned drug for a one week washout period. Following the washout period, those who were taking calcium carbonate will be crossed over to Sevelamer Carbonate therapy and those who were receiving Sevelamer Carbonate will be crossed over to calcium carbonate for a final 8 week treatment phase.
Calcium Carbonate crossover
Participants will be patients with stage II-IV CKD due to diabetic nephropathy randomized to start either with sevelamer carbonate or calcium carbonate
Drug: Calcium Carbonate
This is a 4 month, prospective, comparative, crossover study. The study will be conducted in 20 patients with stage II, III or stage IV diabetic nephropathy. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either 1,250 mg of calcium carbonate TID with meals (control arm) or Sevelamer Carbonate 1,600 mg (two 800 mg tablets) with meals. Each group of 10 subjects will take the assigned drug for 8 weeks. Following the 8 week treatment period, subjects will discontinue the assigned drug for a one week washout period. Following the washout period, those who were taking calcium carbonate will be crossed over to Sevelamer Carbonate therapy and those who were receiving Sevelamer Carbonate will be crossed over to calcium carbonate for a final 8 week treatment phase.

Detailed Description:

Traditional vascular risk factors alone cannot account for the elevated cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, patients with CKD have elevated levels of inflammatory markers and OS, which are emerging as important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with CKD are also known to have elevated levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGE's), which have been shown to induce OS and to play a central role in the development of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications. In CKD patients, AGE's accumulate secondary to decreased renal clearance and increased endogenous production in the setting of high levels of OS. Efforts to understand relationships between the multiple vascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease may lead to reduced morbidity and mortality in this population of patients.

Sevelamer Hydrochloride is an anion exchange resin composed of multiple positively charged amine groups indicated for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with stage V CKD. The positively charged amine groups bind negatively charged dietary phosphate preventing systemic absorption. Sevelamer Hydrochloride has been shown to have the added benefits of lowering LDL levels, lowering highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and improving insulin resistance. Patients treated with Sevelamer Hydrochloride have also been shown to have improved vascular compliance and reduced progression of coronary vascular calcification. Since AGE's are mostly negatively charged compounds, Sevelamer Carbonate by analogy, may have anti-AGE effects which could reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Sevelamer Carbonate would have a major advantage over Calcium Carbonate-based phosphate binders, based on the fact that it would have the added advantage of reducing the levels of AGEs. The resultant reduction of both OS and inflammation would be expected to have an independent beneficial effect on the rate of progression of CKD and CVD.

We have shown in CKD patients and in animal models that AGE's correlate with levels of OS, LDL, hsCRP, and insulin resistance. Additionally, these factors can be remediated in CKD and non-CKD diabetics by decreasing overall AGE load, particularly in the diet. To date, the effect of Sevelamer Hydrochloride or Sevelamer Carbonate on OS and circulating AGE levels has not been studied. The anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects of Sevelamer Hydrochloride may occur through lowering serum AGE levels and OS. Sevelamer Carbonate is an improved form of Sevelamer Hydrochloride that has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in the earlier sta`ges of CKD without causing metabolic acidosis. The development of Sevelamer Carbonate provides an opportunity to study patients with earlier stages of CKD, and to determine if it prevents or slows the progression of CKD. We propose a study designed to compare the effects of calcium carbonate and of Sevelamer Carbonate on serum AGE levels and OS in patients with stage II-IV diabetic nephropathy.

Hypothesis:

Sevelamer Carbonate administration in persons with stage II-IV CKD, compared with calcium carbonate administration, will result in at least a:

  1. 20% decrease in serum levels of AGE's;
  2. 10% decease in inflammatory markers of CRP and VCAM-1, or of OS (AGER1/RAGE) in circulating mononuclear cells.
  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Age ≥ 18 years old
  2. Evidence of CKD II, III or IV Stage II CKD: eGFR 60-89 cc/min Stage III CKD: eGFR 30-59 cc/min Stage IV CKD: eGFR 15-20 cc/min
  3. Proteinuria on urinalysis on two occasions within 18 months of recruitment
  4. Diagnosis of diabetes and receiving at least one medication for diabetes mellitus.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Age < 18 years old
  2. Stage I and V CKD
  3. Patients receiving active treatment for hyperphosphatemia.
  4. Biopsy proven renal disease other than diabetic nephropathy
  5. Hypophosphatemia
  6. Hypercalcemia
  7. any history of significant gastrointestinal disorders
  8. any history of significant gastrointestinal surgery such as ileostomy, colostomy and colectomy
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00967629

Locations
United States, New York
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, New York, United States, 10029
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Helen Vlassara, MD Mount Sinai School of Medicine
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Mount Sinai School of Medicine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00967629     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: GCO 08-0976
Study First Received: August 26, 2009
Last Updated: November 16, 2011
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Mount Sinai School of Medicine:
Diabetic nephropathy
CKD progression
AGEs
oxidative stress
dietary AGEs

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetic Nephropathies
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Diabetes Complications
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine System Diseases
Calcium, Dietary
Calcium Carbonate
Sevelamer
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Antacids
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Chelating Agents
Sequestering Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 26, 2014