Association Between Smoking, Brain Activity, Genes, and ADHD

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified July 2014 by University of California, Irvine
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jean Gehricke, University of California, Irvine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00915798
First received: June 4, 2009
Last updated: July 25, 2014
Last verified: July 2014
  Purpose

The study investigates the underlying mechanisms of smoking in 100 young adults by examining the associations between smoking, prefrontal-limbic brain circuitry, dopamine genes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four groups of young adults will be recruited: (1) smokers with ADHD; (2) nonsmokers with ADHD; (3) normative control smokers; and (4) normative control nonsmokers. Smoking will be assessed via questionnaires and salivary cotinine levels. Prefrontal-limbic brain circuitry will be examined via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Candidate genes will be the dopamine receptor (DRD4) and transporter (DAT1). Each nonsmoker will undergo an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems and unpleasant and neutral pictures. Smokers will undergo two fMRI scans during similar experimental tasks under the following two conditions: (1) after smoking a cigarette and (2) after overnight abstinence. The findings will provide information on the effects of smoking and abstinence on prefrontal-limbic brain circuitry in smokers with and without ADHD.


Condition Intervention
Smoking
Withdrawal
Behavioral: Cigarette smoking versus withdrawal in smokers

Study Type: Observational
Official Title: Smoking, Neurocircuitry and Genes in Adult ADHD

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of California, Irvine:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Brain Circuitry x Genes x ADHD x Smoking [ Time Frame: Up to two sessions ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA

Blood samples for genotyping


Estimated Enrollment: 80
Study Start Date: April 2009
Estimated Study Completion Date: December 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date: April 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Groups/Cohorts Assigned Interventions
Smokers with ADHD
Smokers with ADHD will undergo one overnight abstinence condition (withdrawal) and one smoking condition (smoking the first cigarette of the morning).
Behavioral: Cigarette smoking versus withdrawal in smokers
Each participant will undergo an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems and unpleasant and neutral pictures. Smokers will undergo two fMRI scans during similar experimental tasks under the following two conditions: (1) after smoking a cigarette and (2) after overnight abstinence (withdrawal).
Nonsmokers with ADHD
Nonsmokers will participate in one condition.
Control smokers
Control smokers will undergo one overnight abstinence condition (withdrawal) and one smoking condition (smoking the first cigarette of the morning).
Behavioral: Cigarette smoking versus withdrawal in smokers
Each participant will undergo an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems and unpleasant and neutral pictures. Smokers will undergo two fMRI scans during similar experimental tasks under the following two conditions: (1) after smoking a cigarette and (2) after overnight abstinence (withdrawal).
Control nonsmokers
Nonsmokers will participate in one condition.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population

Commuity sample

Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Smokers with ADHD

    • Cigarette smoking for the last year
    • ADHD diagnosis
  2. Nonsmokers with ADHD

    • No history of regularly smoking cigarettes
    • ADHD diagnosis
  3. Normative control smokers

    • Cigarette smoking for the last year
    • No history and diagnosis of ADHD
  4. Normative control nonsmokers

    • No history of regularly smoking cigarettes
    • No history and diagnosis of ADHD

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Children under the age of 18
  • Adults above the age of 45
  • Pregnancy or planning to become pregnant
  • Any major medical illness
  • Any mental disorders that require medication (except stimulant medication)
  • Any contraindications to fMRI scanning
  • Not speaking English
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00915798

Contacts
Contact: Jean Gehricke, Ph.D. 949-267-0484 jgehrick@uci.edu

Locations
United States, California
2500 Red Hill Avenue Recruiting
Santa Ana, California, United States, 92705
Contact: Jean Gehricke, Ph.D.    949-267-0484    jgehrick@uci.edu   
Principal Investigator: Jean Gehricke, Ph.D.         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Irvine
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jean-G. Gehricke, Ph.D., M.A. University of California, Irvine
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Jean Gehricke, Assistant Professor, University of California, Irvine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00915798     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HS 2009-6740, K01DA025131
Study First Received: June 4, 2009
Last Updated: July 25, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 25, 2014