Trial record 1 of 1 for:    NCT00879970
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Thiazolidinedione Intervention With Vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE)

This study has been terminated.
(FDA has placed the trial on full clinical hold.)
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
GlaxoSmithKline
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00879970
First received: April 2, 2009
Last updated: July 11, 2013
Last verified: May 2013
  Purpose

This study will answer two separate questions.

The first question is to test the cardiovascular effects of long-term treatment with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone when used as part of standard of care compared to similar standard of care without rosiglitazone or pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes who have a history of or are at risk for cardiovascular disease.

The second question will compare the effects of long-term supplementation of vitamin D on death and cancer


Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Dietary Supplement: vitamin D
Drug: pioglitazone
Drug: rosiglitazone
Drug: placebo
Dietary Supplement: placebo
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Thiazolidinedione Intervention With Vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of a Thiazolidinedione or Placebo and of Vitamin D or Placebo In People With Type 2 Diabetes at Risk For Cardiovascular Disease

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by GlaxoSmithKline:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Participants With the Indicated Components of the Composite Cardiovascular Outcome for Thiazolidinedione (TZD) [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 up to the Final Visit (average of 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    An event adjudication committee (EAC) adjudicated all occurrences of the components of the composite cardiovascular (CV; related to heart) outcome for TZD. Components are the first occurrence of cardiovascular death for which a non-heart-related cause has not been identified; non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) (death of heart muscle from sudden blockage of a coronary artery by blood clot not leading to death); and non-fatal stroke (rapidly developing loss of brain function[s] due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain not leading to death).

  • Number of Participants With the Indicated Components of the Composite Outcome for Vitamin D [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (average of 130 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    An EAC adjudicated all occurrences of the components of the composite outcome for vitamin D. Components are the first occurrence of death or cancer requiring hospitalization, treatment with medicines (chemotherapy), or surgery. Participation in the vitamin D study was placed on full clinical hold. The length of follow-up was very short compared to the planned 10 years; thus, results are not presented.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Participants With Any Revascularization [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Revascularization is defined as any surgical procedure for the provision of a new, additional, or augmented blood supply to heart muscle. Data regarding the need for any revascularization were adjudicated by the EAC and sent to the data monitoring committee (IDMC) on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Need for Hospitalization for Any Reason [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Data regarding the need for hospitalization for any reason were collected and were then forwarded to the independent data monitoring committee (IDMC) on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Need for Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Shortness of Breath, Pneumonia, or Angina [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    CHF is a condition in which the heart is not able to pump adequate blood to meet the body's needs. Shortness of breath is defined as difficulty in breathing. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs, caused by various microorganisms. Angina is defined as severe chest pain due to lack of adequate blood supply of the heart muscle because of obstruction/spasm of the heart's blood vessels. Data regarding the need for hospitalization due to any of these reasons were adjudicated by the EAC and sent to the IDMC on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants Who Died [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Data regarding the death of participants were forwarded to the IDMC on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Any Cancer [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. Data regarding all occurences of any cancer were adjudicated by the EAC and sent to the IDMC on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Composite Microvascular Outcome [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The components of the composite microvascular outcome are retinopathy, decline in eGFR, vitrectomy, and renal replacement surgery. Retinopathy is defined as damage to the inner lining of the eye (retina). Decline in eGFR is defined as a >=30% reduction in kidney function. Vitrectomy is a surgery to remove some or all of the fluid (vitreous humor) from the eye. Renal replacement therapy includes all the life-supporting treatments for renal failure. Data regarding the number of participants with changes in micro blood vessels (composite microvascular outcome) were collected at each visit.

  • Number of Participants With Retinopathy Requiring Laser Therapy, a Decline in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), Vitrectomy, and Renal Replacement Therapy [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Retinopathy is defined as damage to the inner lining of the eye (retina). Decline in eGFR is defined as a >=30% reduction in kidney function. Vitrectomy is a surgery to remove some or all of the fluid (vitreous humor) from the eye. Renal replacement therapy includes all the life-supporting treatments for renal failure. Data on the number of participants with all of these microvascular outcomes were collected at each visit. Data regarding the number of participants with these microvascular outcomes were adjudicated by the EAC and sent to the IDMC on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Severe Lower Than Normal Blood Glucose Level (Hypoglycemia) [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Severe hypoglycemia is defined as hypoglycemia requiring assistance from another person with either a documented plasma glucose <=36 mg/deciliter (2.0 millimole per liter [mmol/L]) or prompt recovery after oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose, or glucagon administration. Hypoglycemia data were obtained from outcomes reported by the site. Data regarding hypoglycemia were adjudicated by the EAC and sent to the IDMC on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Clinical Proteinuria [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Clinical proteinuria is defined as a laboratory detection of urinary protein excretion > 0.5 grams (g) per 24 hours; spot urine analysis for albumin:creatinine ratio >=300 milligrams/g; timed urine collection for albumin excretion >=200 µg/minute or >=300 mg/24 hours. Clinical proteinuria data were obtained from outcomes reported by the site.

  • Number of Participants With a Fracture [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Fracture is defined as a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. Fractures are defined as those breaks that are self reported plus confirmed by an X-ray. Data regarding all occurrences of any fracture were adjudicated by the EAC and sent to the IDMC on a regular basis for unblinded review.

  • Number of Participants With Hepatic Enzyme Increased or Abnormal Liver Function Tests [ Time Frame: From Randomization at Visit 3 to Final Visit (up to 162 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Liver function tests are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the health of the liver. "Liver function test abnormal" and "hepatic enzyme increased" were obtained from adverse event data as reported by investigators based on the reference range of the reporting local laboratory methodology.

  • Number of Participants With Cognitive (Mental Processes) Decline (CD) From Baseline to the Year 2 Visit and the Final Visit [ Time Frame: Baseline, Year 2 Visit, and Final Visit (up to Year 5.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    CD is equivalent to a difference of >=1.5 units on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score. The DSST is a neuropsychological test sensitive to brain damage, a serious loss of cognitive ability, age, and depression. It consists of digit-symbol pairs, followed by a list of digits. Under each digit the participant was asked to write the corresponding symbol as quickly as possible. The number of correct symbols within the allowed time (90 or 120 seconds) was measured in units (one correct score equals one unit).

  • Number of Participants With Erectile Dysfunction [ Time Frame: At Randomization at Visit 3 and Final Visit (up to Year 5.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance. ED was assessed by using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIED) questionnaire. This standardized and validated 15-item self-evaluation scale provides pre- and post-treatment clinic evaluations of erectile and orgasmic function, sexual desire, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and general satisfaction.

  • Mean Score on Euro-QoL (EQ)-5D [ Time Frame: At Randomization at Visit 3 and Final Visit (up to Year 5.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by using the Euro-QoL (EQ)-5D, a short questionnaire used for measuring health-related QoL. The preference weights are elicited by asking participants to place hypothetical health states on a visual analogue scale from "0" to "1", whereby a score of "1" represents the best health state imaginable and "0" represents a health state equivalent to being dead. Negative states are those worse than being dead.

  • Mean Score on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Test, as an Assessment of Cognitive Function (CF) [ Time Frame: At Randomization at Visit 3 and Final Visit (up to Year 5.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    CF was assessed with the 30-point (pt) MoCA test, involving a short-term memory recall task (T) (5 pts), a clock-drawing T (3 pts), a 3-dimensional cube copy (1 pt), a trail-making B T (1 pt), a phonemic fluency T (1 pt), a 2-item verbal abstraction T (2 pts), an attention T (1 pt), a serial subtraction T (3 pts), digits forward/ backward (1 pt each), a 3-item confrontation naming T (3 pts), repetition of 2 syntactically complex sentences (2 pts), and orientation to time/ place (6 pts). A score of 26 or above is normal.


Enrollment: 1332
Study Start Date: May 2009
Estimated Study Completion Date: October 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date: October 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: pioglitazone Drug: pioglitazone
thiazolidinedione factor intervention
Active Comparator: rosiglitazone Drug: rosiglitazone
thiazolidinedione factor intervention
Placebo Comparator: TZD placebo Drug: placebo
thiazolidinedione factor intervention
Active Comparator: vitamin D Dietary Supplement: vitamin D
vitamin D factor intervention
Placebo Comparator: vitamin D placebo Dietary Supplement: placebo
Vitamin D factor intervention

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Men or women with: a) newly detected type 2 diabetes based on a fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dL) or a 2 hour plasma glucose (FPG) greater than or equal to 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dL) on an oral glucose tolerance test, or b) a history of type 2 diabetes
  • Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) 6.5-9.5% inclusive (for assays with upper limit of normal of 6%) within one month of screening
  • Age ≥ 50 years and evidence of vascular disease defined as ≥1of:

    • prior myocardial infarction
    • prior stroke
    • coronary, carotid or peripheral artery revascularization ≥ 4 years earlier
    • previous documented myocardial ischemia on either an exercise stress test or on any cardiac imaging, or previous unstable angina with ECG changes or cardiac enzyme elevation OR
  • Age ≥ 55 years and evidence of subclinical vascular disease defined as ≥1 of:

    • microalbuminuria or proteinuria
    • history of treated or untreated hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram (ECG) or echocardiogram

      • 50% stenosis on any imaging of coronary, carotid or lower extremity arteries
    • ankle/brachial index <0.9 OR
  • Age ≥ 60 years and at least 2 of the following cardiovascular disease risk factors:

    • current tobacco use
    • LDL-c ≥3.4 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) or on a lipid lowering medication
    • HDL-c < 1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) for men and < 1.3 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) for women or triglycerides ≥ 2.3 mmol/L (200 mg/dL)
    • BP lowering medication use or untreated SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 95 mmHg
    • Waist to hip ratio > 1.0 for men and > 0.8 for women
  • On no insulin and on less than or equal to 2 anti-diabetes drugs where at least one drug is at or below the half-maximal dose (as indicated in the MOP) with stable dosing for 10 weeks prior to screening

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Current need for insulin treatment
  • Symptomatic hyperglycemia requiring immediate therapy in the judgment of the physician
  • An acute cardiovascular event within 30 days prior to randomization
  • Symptomatic heart failure (i.e. New York Heart Association class II or higher) or any episode of previous pulmonary edema or known ejection fraction < 0.4 or current use of loop diuretics
  • Any fracture within the past 1 year
  • Currently planned coronary, carotid or peripheral artery revascularization or cardiac valve surgery
  • Coronary, carotid or peripheral artery revascularization within the 4 years prior to screening in the absence of angina, MI, or stroke in the intervening period
  • End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy
  • Receiving drug therapy to treat liver disease
  • A diagnosis of cancer (other than superficial squamous, basal cell skin cancer, or adequately treated cervical carcinoma in situ) in the past 3 years or current treatment for the active cancer (other than prophylactic)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level > 2.5 times the upper limit of normal
  • A prior heart transplant or awaiting a heart transplant
  • Previous or current hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia or other contraindication for vitamin D therapy
  • Regular use of or indication for greater than 400IU of vitamin D daily
  • Clinically or medically unstable with expected survival < 1 year
  • Unwillingness to permit sites to contact their primary physicians to communicate information about the study and the participant's data
  • Any other factor likely to limit protocol compliance or reporting of adverse events
  • Inability to discontinue a TZD (if taking one) in the judgement of the physician/investigator
  • Contraindications to or history of hypersensitivity to the investigational products
  • History of renal stones within the past 2 years
  • Participation in another clinical trial of an investigational agent
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00879970

Locations
Norway
GSK Investigational Site
Tromsø, Norway, 9038
Thailand
GSK Investigational Site
Bangkok, Thailand, 10400
Sponsors and Collaborators
GlaxoSmithKline
Investigators
Study Director: GSK Clinical Trials GlaxoSmithKline
  More Information

No publications provided by GlaxoSmithKline

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: GlaxoSmithKline
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00879970     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 111960
Study First Received: April 2, 2009
Results First Received: November 10, 2011
Last Updated: July 11, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by GlaxoSmithKline:
Academic Research Collaborator: Population Health Research Institute / Hamilton Health Sciences / McMaster University / Ontario Canada
Cardiovascular Outcomes

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Endocrine System Diseases
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
2,4-thiazolidinedione
Ergocalciferols
Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone
Vitamin D
Vitamins
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Growth Substances
Hypoglycemic Agents
Micronutrients
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 23, 2014