Chloroquine for Reducing Immune Activation in HIV- Infected Individuals

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00819390
First received: January 8, 2009
Last updated: October 3, 2014
Last verified: October 2014
  Purpose

HIV is characterized by frequent immune system activation. Early in the course of infection the body establishes an immune activation "set point" related to the amount of HIV in the blood stream. This set point affects the rate of CD4 cell loss. Without CD4 cells, or with very low levels of CD4 cells, the body cannot fight off illness. This is known as immunodeficiency. If left untreated HIV can lead to extreme immunodeficiency and AIDS.

Evidence suggests that by decreasing the rate of immune system activation, immune deficiency progression could be prevented. The purpose of this study is to learn how well chloroquine can reduce the level of immune activation and to test the safety and tolerance of chloroquine in people infected with HIV.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Drug: Chloroquine
Drug: Placebo
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II, Double Blind, Randomized, Exploratory Study of Chloroquine for Reducing HIV-Associated Immune Activation

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by AIDS Clinical Trials Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ From Baseline to Week 12 [ Time Frame: At pre-entry, entry, weeks 10 and 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The baseline percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ (mean of pre-entry and entry percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+) was subtracted from the mean of week 10 and week 12 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ From Start to End of the 12-week Chloroquine Treatment Period [ Time Frame: For Arms A and C: Pre-entry, entry, weeks 10 and 12. For Arms B and D: Weeks 10, 12, 22 and 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    For Arm A: Chloroquine then Placebo for off-ART participants and Arm C: Chloroquine then Placebo for on-ART participants, the baseline percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ (mean of pre-entry and entry percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+) was subtracted from the mean of week 10 and week 12 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+. For Arm B: Placebo then Chloroquine for off-ART participants and Arm D: Placebo then Chloroquine for on-ART participants, the mean of week 10 and week 12 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ was subtracted from the mean of week 22 and week 24 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+.

  • Change in Percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ From Week 12 to Week 24 [ Time Frame: At Weeks 10, 12, 22 and 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean of week 10 and week 12 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ is subtracted from the mean of the week 22 and week 24 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+

  • Change in Percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ From Baseline to Week 24 in Arm A and Arm C [ Time Frame: At Pre-entry, entry, Weeks 22 and 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The baseline percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+ (mean of pre-entry and entry percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+) was subtracted from the mean of week 22 and week 24 percent CD8 HLA-DR+/CD38+.

  • Change in Total CD4 T Cell Count From Baseline to Week 12 [ Time Frame: At pre-entry, entry, weeks 10 and 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline CD4 count (mean of pre-entry and entry CD4 count) is subtracted from the mean of week 10 and week 12 CD4 count

  • Number of Participants With Events Grade 3 or Higher [ Time Frame: From start of study treatment to study completion at week 28 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Events included signs and symptoms, laboratory abnormalities and/or clinical events grade 3 or higher which were described by site clinician blinded to the treatment arm as definitely or possibly related to the study treatment.

  • HIV-1 RNA Copies/mL at Study Entry for Off-ART Participants [ Time Frame: At Entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are for HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL) at study entry for off-ART participants.

  • HIV-1 RNA Copies/mL at Weeks 12 and 24 for Off-ART Participants [ Time Frame: At weeks 12 and 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are for HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL) at week 12 and week 24 for off-ART participants.

  • HIV-1 RNA Copies/mL at Study Entry for On-ART Participants [ Time Frame: At Entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are for HIV-1 RNA at study entry for on-ART participants.

  • HIV-1 RNA Copies/mL at Week 12 for On-ART Participants [ Time Frame: At week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are for HIV-1 RNA at week 12 for on-ART participants.

  • HIV-1 RNA Copies/mL at Week 24 for On-ART Participants [ Time Frame: At week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are for HIV-1 RNA at week 24 for on-ART participants.

  • Percent CD8 CD38+ at Baseline [ Time Frame: At pre-entry and entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline CD8 CD38+ is computed as the mean of pre-entry and entry CD8 CD38+.

  • Percent CD8 CD38+ at Week 12 [ Time Frame: At Week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 12 percentage of CD8 expressing CD38+.

  • Percent CD8 CD38+ at Week 24 [ Time Frame: At Week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 24 percentage of CD8 expressing CD38+.

  • Percent CD4 HLA-DR+/CD38+ at Baseline [ Time Frame: At pre-entry and entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline CD4 HLA-DR+/CD38+ is computed as the mean of pre-entry and entry CD4 HLA-DR+/CD38+.

  • Percent CD4 HLA-DR+/CD38+ at Week 12 [ Time Frame: At Week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 12 percentage of CD4 expressing HLA-DR+/CD38+.

  • Percent CD4 HLA-DR+/CD38+ at Week 24 [ Time Frame: At Week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 24 percentage of CD4 expressing HLA-DR+/CD38+.

  • IL-6, Soluble TNF-rI (sTNF-rI) and D-dimer at Baseline [ Time Frame: At pre-entry and entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline IL-6, sTNF-rI and D-dimer were computed as the mean of pre-entry and entry IL-6, sTNF-rI and D-dimer, respectively.

  • IL-6, Soluble TNF-rI (sTNF-rI) and D-dimer at Week 12 [ Time Frame: At week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 12 IL-6, sTNF-rI and D-dimer.

  • IL-6, Soluble TNF-rI (sTNF-rI) and D-dimer at Week 24 [ Time Frame: At week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 24 IL-6, sTNF-rI and D-dimer.

  • Soluble CD14 (sCD14) at Baseline [ Time Frame: At pre-entry and entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline sCD14 was computed as the mean of pre-entry and entry sCD14.

  • Soluble CD14 (sCD14) at Week 12 [ Time Frame: At week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 12 sCD14.

  • Soluble CD14 (sCD14) at Week 24 [ Time Frame: At week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 24 sCD14.

  • Fasting Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at Entry [ Time Frame: At entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are for entry fasting LPS.

  • Fasting Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at Week 12 [ Time Frame: At week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 12 fasting LPS.

  • Fasting Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at Week 24 [ Time Frame: At week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 24 fasting LPS.

  • Percent Activation Levels of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDC) and Myeloid Dendritic Cells (mDC) at Baseline [ Time Frame: At pre-entry and entry ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Baseline percent activation levels of pDC were computed as the mean of pre-entry and entry percent activation levels of pDC. Similarly, baseline percent activation levels of mDC were computed as the mean of pre-entry and entry percent activation levels of mDC.

  • Percent Activation Levels of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDC) and Myeloid Dendritic Cells (mDC) at Week 12 [ Time Frame: At week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 12 percent activation levels of pDC and mDC.

  • Percent Activation Levels of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDC) and Myeloid Dendritic Cells (mDC) at Week 24 [ Time Frame: At week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Results reported are the week 24 percent activation levels of pDC and mDC.


Enrollment: 70
Study Start Date: March 2009
Study Completion Date: May 2013
Primary Completion Date: February 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: A: Chloroquine then Placebo for Off-ART Participants
Participants received chloroquine treatment from Day 0 through the Week 12 study visit and then began chloroquine placebo treatment until the Week 24 study visit.
Drug: Chloroquine
Taken orally, once daily, at a dose of 250 mg for 12 weeks.
Drug: Placebo
Taken orally, once daily for 12 weeks.
Experimental: B: Placebo then Chloroquine for Off-ART Participants
Participants received chloroquine placebo treatment from Day 0 through the Week 12 study visit and then began chloroquine treatment until the Week 24 study visit.
Drug: Chloroquine
Taken orally, once daily, at a dose of 250 mg for 12 weeks.
Drug: Placebo
Taken orally, once daily for 12 weeks.
Experimental: C: Chloroquine then Placebo for On-ART Participants
Participants received chloroquine treatment from Day 0 through the Week 12 study visit and then began chloroquine placebo treatment until the Week 24 study visit.
Drug: Chloroquine
Taken orally, once daily, at a dose of 250 mg for 12 weeks.
Drug: Placebo
Taken orally, once daily for 12 weeks.
Experimental: D: Placebo then Chloroquine for On-ART Participants
Participants received chloroquine placebo treatment from Day 0 through the Week 12 study visit and then began chloroquine treatment until the Week 24 study visit.
Drug: Chloroquine
Taken orally, once daily, at a dose of 250 mg for 12 weeks.
Drug: Placebo
Taken orally, once daily for 12 weeks.

Detailed Description:

HIV is characterized by persistent immune system activation, and early in the course of infection the body establishes an immune activation "set point" related to the amount of HIV in the blood stream. This set point affects the rate of CD4 cell loss. Without CD4 cells, or with very low levels of CD4 cells, the body cannot fight off illness. This is known as immunodeficiency. If left untreated HIV can lead to extreme immunodeficiency and AIDS.

Immune system activation includes activating the CD8 cells. These cells attack body cells infected with viruses. Because of this, CD4 cells infected with HIV are frequently destroyed by CD8 cells. The purpose of this study is to learn how well chloroquine reduces the level of activation of CD8 cells in people infected with HIV. Increased activation of CD8 cells is thought to lead to a more severe path of disease in HIV infection.

The constant immune activation observed in HIV- infected patients has also been linked to higher levels of byproducts from certain naturally occurring bacteria found in the gut that are known to be immune stimulants. By decreasing the stimulation from these byproducts with chloroquine treatment, HIV disease may be slowed.

The purpose of this study was to learn how well chloroquine reduces the level of activation of CD8 cells and lowers the levels of bacteria byproducts in people infected with HIV, either off antiretroviral therapy (ART) (protocol version 1.0 dated December 17, 2008) or on-ART (protocol version 2.0 dated October 1, 2010). The off-ART (Arms A and B) and on-ART (Arms C and D) participants were enrolled during different time periods, and the study was designed to analyze the two study populations separately. This study also looked at how well chloroquine was tolerated and its safety in HIV- infected participants.

Off-ART participants in the study were randomized with equal probability to one of two treatment arms:

Arm A: Participants received 12 weeks of chloroquine treatment followed by 12 weeks of placebo

Arm B: Participants received 12 weeks of placebo followed by 12 weeks of chloroquine

On-ART participants in the study were randomized with equal probability to one of two treatment arms:

Arm C: Participants received 12 weeks of chloroquine treatment followed by 12 weeks of placebo

Arm D: Participants received 12 weeks of placebo followed by 12 weeks of chloroquine

Study treatment was given once a day for a full 24 weeks. There was an additional 4 weeks of follow-up for purposes of safety. After treatment has started, participants were asked to come to the clinic on Weeks 4, 10, 12, 16, 22, and 24. At each visit participants were given enough study treatment to last until the next visit. Each visit lasted between 30 and 60 minutes. At most visits, participants had a physical exam, answered questions about any medications they were taking and how they are feeling, and had blood drawn for safety to assess CD4/CD8 cell counts and viral load. Some additional blood were also stored for immunology testing. At some visits, participants were asked questions about their medication and medical history, had pupils dilated, had a hearing test, and had an electrocardiogram (EKG). Some visits required participants to arrive fasting. Pregnancy tests were also conducted if the participant is able to become pregnant or if pregnancy was suspected.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV-1 infected
  • Certain specified laboratory values obtained within 30 days prior to study entry. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
  • Documentation that pre-entry specimen for the primary immune activation endpoint responses has been obtained
  • Female participants of reproductive potential must have a negative pregnancy test performed within 24 hours prior to study entry
  • If engaging in sexual activity, female participants must use adequate forms of contraception while receiving study treatment and for 4 weeks after stopping the treatment. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
  • Ability and willingness to provide informed consent

Additional Inclusion Criteria for Off-ART Participants:

  • No antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months prior to study entry and not likely to start within the 6 months after study entry
  • CD4 cell count greater than or equal to 400 cells/mm3 at screening, obtained within 30 days prior to study entry
  • For participants with previous ART use, documentation or recall of nadir CD4 cell count greater than or equal to 200 cells/mm3
  • HIV-1 RNA viral load greater than or equal to 1,000 copies/mL obtained within 30 days prior to study entry
  • No history of CDC category C AIDS-related opportunistic infections
  • Karnofsky performance score greater than or equal to 70 within 30 days prior to study entry

Additional Inclusion Criteria for On-ART Participants:

  • Receiving ART, defined as a regimen that includes three or more antiretroviral medications, for at least 24 months prior to study entry
  • Required documentation that all HIV-1 viral loads (at least two) were below 400 copies/mL. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
  • Screening HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL within 30 days prior to study entry. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
  • CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3 at screening, obtained within 30 days prior to study entry

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Continuous use of certain specified medication for more than 3 days within 30 days prior to study entry. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
  • Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine within 3 months prior to study entry
  • Known history of hypersensitivity to 4-aminoquinoline compounds (such as chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine)
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the investigator would interfere with adherence to study requirements
  • Serious illness requiring systemic treatment and/or hospitalization within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Renal insufficiency, defined as serum creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dL, within 30 days prior to study entry
  • History of retinal disease (i.e. confirmed retinopathy by ophthalmologic examination)
  • History of neoplasm, within 5 years prior to study entry, other than treated in situ carcinoma or basal-cell or localized squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency at screening
  • History of porphyria
  • History of psoriasis
  • History of cirrhosis
  • History of seizure disorder
  • History of tinnitus (ear and/or head noise lasting more than 5 minutes that occurs more often than once per week) or history of sudden hearing loss
  • History of myopathy
  • History of cardiac conduction abnormality or cardiomyopathy. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.

Additional Exclusion Criteria for On-ART Participants:

- Plans to change ART regimen with the 6 months after study entry (change in ART regimen is only permitted if due to toxicity)

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00819390

Locations
United States, Alabama
Alabama Therapeutics CRS (5801)
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35294
United States, California
Ucsd, Avrc Crs (701)
San Diego, California, United States, 92103
United States, Colorado
University of Colorado Hospital CRS (6101)
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
United States, District of Columbia
Georgetown University CRS (GU CRS) (1008)
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20007
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins Adult AIDS CRS (201)
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21205
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital ACTG CRS (101)
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
United States, Missouri
Washington University CRS (2101)
St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
United States, New York
Cornell CRS (7804)
New York, New York, United States, 10011
United States, North Carolina
Unc Aids Crs (3201)
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27514
United States, Ohio
Univ. of Cincinnati CRS (2401)
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45267
MetroHealth CRS (2503)
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44109
Case CRS (2501)
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44106
United States, Pennsylvania
Hosp. of the Univ. of Pennsylvania CRS (6201)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Pittsburgh CRS (1001)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15213
United States, Tennessee
Vanderbilt Therapeutics CRS (3652)
Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37204
Sponsors and Collaborators
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Investigators
Study Chair: Jeffrey M Jacobson, MD Drexel University College of Medicine
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00819390     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG A5258, 1U01AI068636
Study First Received: January 8, 2009
Results First Received: August 26, 2014
Last Updated: October 3, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Infections
Immune System Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Slow Virus Diseases
Virus Diseases
Chloroquine
Chloroquine diphosphate
Amebicides
Analgesics
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Anthelmintics
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Antimalarials
Antinematodal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antirheumatic Agents
Central Nervous System Agents
Filaricides
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 28, 2014