Biofeedback-Based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Temporomandibular Disorders

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Psychotherapie-Ambulanz Marburg e.V.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Winfried Rief, Philipps University Marburg Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00769561
First received: October 8, 2008
Last updated: December 4, 2013
Last verified: December 2013
  Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral treatment for patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders using a randomized controlled design.


Condition Intervention Phase
Temporomandibular Disorders
Behavioral: Biofeedback-Based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment
Device: Dental treatment with occlusal splint (OS)
Phase 2
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparison of a Biofeedback-Based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment and Occlusal Splint Therapy for Temporomandibular Disorders. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Philipps University Marburg Medical Center:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Pain Intensity (German Pain Questionnaire; Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD)) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Characteristic pain intensity (German Pain Questionnaire; Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD)):

    Characteristic pain intensity was calculated by averaging ratings of current pain, average pain, and worst pain in the past month on a numeric rating scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (maximum pain), as recommended by RDC/TMD (range 0 - 10). Higher values indicate higher pain levels.


  • Pain Disability (Pain Disability Index) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Pain related disability was assessed using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). The PDI is a brief self-rating scale which assesses the level of pain related disability in seven areas of daily life (e.g., social activity, self-care) on a 0 (no disability) -10 (maximum disability) numeric rating scale (range 0 - 70). Higher values indicate higher disability levels. Cronbach's alpha was .87 in the current sample.

  • Jaw Use Limitations (JDL) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Jaw use limitations were measured using the Jaw Disability List (JDL) from the RDC/TMD. The JDL asks the patient to rate interference with eleven oral activities, for example chewing or talking. We used an 11-point numeric rating scale (from 0 'no limitation' to 10 'maximum limitation') instead of ratings of 'yes' and 'no' (range 0 - 110). Higher values indicate higher levels of jaw use limitations. Cronbach's alpha was .86 in the current sample.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Somatoform Symptoms (Screening for Somatoform Disorders, SOMS) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Somatoform complaints during the past week were assessed using the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms (SOMS-7). 32 medically unexplained symptoms (29 for male subjects) representing DSM-IV criteria for somatization disorder were rated on a 0 ('not at all') to 4 ('very much') scale (range 0 - 128 for women and 0 - 116 for men). A sum score was calculated with higher scores indicating higher intensity and burden of somatoform complaints. In the current sample, Cronbach's alpha level was α = .88.

  • Depressive Symptoms (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The CES-D asks for the frequency of 20 symptoms of depression during the past week on a scale ranging from 0 ('less than 1 day') to 3 ('5 to 7 days') (range 0-60). Higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms. It is suitable for use in chronic pain patients as it relies less on physical symptoms of depression than do other measures. Cronbach's alpha level in the current sample was α = .89.

  • General Anxiety Symptoms (GAD-7) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    General anxiety symptoms were assessed using the 7-item scale from the Patient Health Questionnaire (GAD-7). The GAD-7 asks for anxiety symptoms during the past month on a 1 ('not at all') to 3 ('more than half of the days') rating scale (range 7-21). Higher scores indicate higher levels of anxiety. Cronbach's alpha level in the current sample was α = .64.

  • Pain Coping (FESV) [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment (after 8 weeks), and 6-month follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Cognitive and behavioral pain coping strategies were assessed with Coping Strategies Scale from the German Pain Coping Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Erfassung der Schmerzverarbeitung, FESV). The scale asks for the use of 24 cognitive (e.g. cognitive restructuring) and behavioral (e.g. use of relaxation techniques) strategies for coping with pain on a scale ranging from 1 ('fully disagree') to 6 ('fully agree') (range 24-144). A sum score was used with higher scores indicating more adaptive coping. Cronbach's alpha level was α = .80.

  • TMD Related Symptoms [ Time Frame: Pre-Post-Design including 3 assessment points: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-months follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    TMD related symptoms, such as jaw pain, toothache or dizziness, were measured using a 41-item TMD symptom list. Following the SOMS-7 scale, intensity of symptoms experienced during the past week was rated from 0 ('not at all') to 4 ('very high intensity') (range 0 - 164). A sum score was built with higher scores indicating higher intensity of TMD related symptoms. The TMD symptom list has not been evaluated previously; however, large bivariate correlations with somatization (Pearson's r = .79), medium to large correlations with pain intensity (r = .48), and medium correlations with depression (r = .37) and anxiety (r = .27) provide evidence of good convergent and divergent validity. Cronbach's alpha level in the current sample was excellent (α = .93).


Enrollment: 58
Study Start Date: August 2008
Study Completion Date: April 2011
Primary Completion Date: July 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: BFB-CBT

Biofeedback-based cognitive-behavioral treatment:

The biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral intervention comprises 8 individual sessions, each containing both cognitive behavioral and biofeedback elements. Treatment elements are education about the disorder, biofeedback training aimed at improving proprioceptive awareness and reversing parafunctional habits, relaxation techniques, and stress management. Furthermore patients receive portable biofeedback devices for EMG-biofeedback training during day and nighttime in order to reverse diurnal and nocturnal bruxing habits.

Behavioral: Biofeedback-Based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment
The biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral intervention comprises 8 individual sessions, each containing both cognitive behavioral and biofeedback elements. Treatment elements are education about the disorder, biofeedback training aimed at improving proprioceptive awareness and reversing parafunctional habits, relaxation techniques, and stress management. Furthermore patients receive portable biofeedback devices for EMG-biofeedback training during day and nighttime in order to reverse diurnal and nocturnal bruxing habits.
Active Comparator: Occlusal Splint (OS)

Dental treatment with occlusal splints:

Maxillary or mandibular occlusal splints are made of hard acrylic after taking impressions of the upper and lower dental arches, face bow registration and recording of centric relation. Splints are adjusted to provide even occlusal contact during jaw closing and chewing, and canine and incisor contact during protrusive movements of the jaw. Patients are instructed to use the splint each night and during day time for a period of 7 weeks. One week after initial insertion of the splint patients are requested to return for adjustment.

Device: Dental treatment with occlusal splint (OS)
Maxillary or mandibular occlusal splints are made of hard acrylic after taking impressions of the upper and lower dental arches, face bow registration and recording of centric relation. Splints are adjusted to provide even occlusal contact during jaw closing and chewing, and canine and incisor contact during protrusive movements of the jaw. Patients are instructed to use the splint each night and during day time for a period of 7 weeks. One week after initial insertion of the splint patients are requested to return for adjustment.

Detailed Description:

The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral treatment for temporomandibular disorders using a randomized controlled design. 100 patients suffering from chronic temporomandibular disorder are diagnosed using Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Subsequently, patients are randomly assigned to either a psychological intervention receiving 8 sessions of biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral treatment or to a dental intervention receiving interocclusal splint therapy.

Assessment takes place at baseline, after treatment approximately 8 weeks later, 3 and 6 months follow up. The effects of the interventions are evaluated in terms of reduction in pain intensity, pain related disability, psychological variables such as somatoform symptoms, depression and pain related cognitive adjustment as well as nocturnal electromyographic (EMG) activity.

Additionally, the study aims at identifying variables that predict treatment outcome. Further analyses include initial changes in treatment motivation and illness perceptions and its influence on treatment success, as well as changes in psychophysiological stress reactivity through treatment.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 70 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • clinical diagnosis of painful temporomandibular disorder according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD)
  • symptoms persist at least 3 months
  • sufficient language skills

Exclusion Criteria:

  • somatic diagnosis that requires defined somatic treatment (e.g. occlusal interference)
  • presence of a psychotic disorder
  • presence of neurological disorders (e.g. dementia)
  • alcohol or substance abuse
  • presence of other pain condition of predominant severity
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00769561

Locations
Germany
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg
Marburg, Germany, 35032
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Philipps University Marburg Medical Center
Marburg, Germany, 35032
Sponsors and Collaborators
Philipps University Marburg Medical Center
Psychotherapie-Ambulanz Marburg e.V.
Investigators
Study Chair: Winfried Rief, Prof. Dr. Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
Study Director: Gaby M Bleichhardt, Dr. (PhD) Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
Principal Investigator: Meike C Shedden Mora, Dipl. Psych. Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: Winfried Rief, PhD, Philipps University Marburg Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00769561     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: TMD_Jue2008
Study First Received: October 8, 2008
Results First Received: May 24, 2013
Last Updated: December 4, 2013
Health Authority: Germany: Ethics Commission

Keywords provided by Philipps University Marburg Medical Center:
Temporomandibular disorders
Biofeedback
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Pain

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome
Craniomandibular Disorders
Mandibular Diseases
Jaw Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Joint Diseases
Muscular Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases
Myofascial Pain Syndromes
Salicylic Acid
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions
Antifungal Agents
Keratolytic Agents
Dermatologic Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 01, 2014