A Novel Mutation of the Spectrin Gene
The purpose of this study is to find a gene or its mutation (an altered gene) that puts individuals at risk for developing HE or HPP.
Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE)
Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis (HPP)
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Case Report: A Novel Mutation of the Spectrin Gene in a Family of Northern European Descent Is Associated With Three Different Phenotypes|
- Identify a gene or its mutation (an altered gene) that puts individuals at risk for developing HE or HPP [ Time Frame: After sample is obtained ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||February 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Family members of northern European descent in which members have different erythrocyte morphology ranging from atypical HPP to HE to normal and a novel Sp mutation.
Mutations of spectrin (Sp) involving the Sp heterodimer self-association site (the I domain of Sp) represent the most common group of membrane skeletal defects in hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and a closely related disorder, hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP). HPP is characterized by extreme anisocytic microcytosis, a severe spectrin dimer self-association defect and spectrin deficiency. The conventional explanation for the different phenotypes is that HPP subjects are compound heterozygotes for an sp defect that interferes with sp tetramer assembly and a second defect which results in decreased synthesis of functional sp. In contrast, HE subjects have normal spectrin content and a less severe sp self-association defect. The clinical expression of HE/HPP is influenced by the inheritance of modifying factors such as the Sp hypomorphic mutation, LELY. LELY is a low expression allele of the Sp gene characterized by a C>G mutation in codon 1857 of exon 40 and a C>T -12 mutation in intron 45 that is responsible for partial skipping of exon 46, which is essential for the functional assembly of /b sp dimers.
Here we describe four members from a family of northern European descent in which members had different erythrocyte morphology ranging from atypical HPP to HE to normal and a novel Sp mutation. Quantitation of RBC membrane proteins of the propositus with atypical non-microcytic HPP revealed 48% spectrin dimers (control 10%) due to a marked increase in the 74kD I Sp peptide. There was only a slight decrease in the spectrin/band 3 ratio, which correlated with the normocytic morphology. There was also an abnormal Sp peptide at 41kD suggesting presence of LELY. Sequencing of his Sp gene revealed heterozygosity for a novel mutation in exon 2, codon 34: CGG->CCG (Arg>Pro) and heterozygosity for LELY. These mutations were also present in his brother and daughter who have HE, while another son, who had Arg34Pro, but not LELY has repeatedly confirmed normal morphology.
We plan to screen 11 other family members who are suspected to have HPP or HE. Blood samples will be obtained and the following will be performed:
- Quantitation of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane proteins
- DNA extraction from the WBC and screening for spectrin mutation with restriction enzymes (if needed we will sequence spectrin gene)
- Quantitative Real Time PCR testing will be done on RNA to assess the spectrin gene expression
- History, Clinical examination, CBC, chemistry and peripheral blood smear
Quantitation of RBC membrane proteins will be done by looking for the abnormal increase in the amount of spectrin dimers in patients with HPP (control 10%). We will also look at the DNA for any known or yet unreported mutations in the spectrin gene and we will correlate the expression of spectrin gene wrt level of spectrin protein in the RNA.
No statistical analysis will be done. This is an observation study designed to correlate clinical features with the above mentioned tests results.
|United States, Utah|
|University of Utah|
|Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84132|
|Principal Investigator:||Josef T Prchal, MD||University of Utah|