Cardiovascular Effects of Chronic Sildenafil in Men With Type 2 Diabetes (CECSID)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) represents a model of endothelial dysfunction, where chronic nitric oxide deprivation, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia and fibrogenic mediators lead to cardiovascular remodelling associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy and in consequence to secondary complications of diabetes. Specific anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic therapies are not currently available. Sildenafil (Viagra) has demonstrated the capability of significantly improving endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis in experimental animal models.
The purpose of the present study is performed to establish the effect of chronic high dose sildenafil treatment on heart performance in diabetic subjects.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Cardiovascular Effects of Chronic Sildenafil (Viagra) Treatment in Diabetic Subjects With Endothelial Dysfunction.|
- Left Ventricular Torsion Defined as Change in Ventricular Mid-wall Rotation (°) Measured by Cine-Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Imaging With Tagging, Before and After Three Months of Treatment With Sildenafil and Placebo (100 mg/Day). [ Time Frame: 0 and + 3 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Diabetic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophy are characterized by an increase in cardiac torsion Normal value of rotation are < 12°; in hypertrophic heart such values can raise up to 20-25°. A reduction in left ventricular wall rotation is a sign of improvement after removal of known causes of hypertrophy (for example after surgical repair of aortic stenosis). Based on previous studies a reduction of 3 degrees (°) is considered clinically significant.
- Ejection Fraction (EF) Defined as the Volume of Blood Ejected With Each Beat Was Measured on Cine-Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Images Before and After Three Months Treatment With Sildenafil and Placebo (100 mg/Day). [ Time Frame: 0 and + 3 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]The volume of blood within a ventricle immediately before a contraction is known as the end-diastolic volume; the volume of blood left in a ventricle at the end of contraction is end-systolic volume. The difference between end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volumes is the volume of blood ejected with each beat. Ejection fraction (Ef) is the fraction of the end-diastolic volume that is ejected with each beat; expressed as percentage of EDV. This is a measure of cardiac performance that can be deteriorated in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
|Study Start Date:||January 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: 1
Sildenafil 100 mg
100 mg daily (3 capsules/day)
Placebo Comparator: 2
Placebo 100 mg
Placebo 100 mg (3 capsules/day)
Other Name: Placebo
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) represents a model of endothelial dysfunction at central and peripheral levels, where chronic nitric oxide deprivation, due to hyperglycaemia, leads to a loss of vascular endothelium-relaxant function and ischaemia-reperfusion ventricular damage. Since haemodynamic and oxidative stress could trigger a pro-inflammatory process of the intracardiac vasculature, endothelial cells activated in turns can produce fibrogenic mediators and induce fibroblast activation and myocardial fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of insulin levels of T2DM induces cardiotoxicity increasing the expression of ventricular angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1). All these mechanisms lead to cardiovascular remodelling associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy that is characterized by an impairment of heart diastolic performance with a ventricular hypertrophy and a dilatation and an increase of heart torsion.
Specific anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic therapies are not currently available. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) work to improve endothelial dysfunction by preventing the breakdown of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased cellular content and consequent relaxation of smooth muscle cells of all systemic arteries and veins. PDE5i have therefore the potential to impact the cardiovascular performance, acting on all these mechanisms.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of the chronic (3 months) high dose (100 mg daily) sildenafil treatment in patient with type 2 diabetes. We will analyze the changes in parameters of endothelial dysfunction and heart remodelling and in metabolic indices. We will evaluate the outcomes at day 90. Moreover we will estimate if the changes in endothelial function will be sustained 30 days after discontinuing treatment.
This is designed as a phase IV study on chronic treatment with a cohort size of 30 patients randomized to receive Sildenafil and 20 patients randomized to placebo. Accounting for a 15% drop off, a total enrollment of 60 patients is planned. Patients will begin a washout from PDE5i in the first visit (4 weeks before the beginning of the treatment). Evaluation of potential toxicity will be monitored throughout the course of treatment. Follow-up visits will take place at days + 30, +60, +90 (end of treatment) and +120. Plasma and serum monitoring of basal and postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, hematochemical routine, VEGF, hormones and others cytokines and albuminuria will be made prior to treatment, at days 30, 60, 90, 120. Measurements of cine-MRI, FMD and blood pressure Holter 24h will be made at time 0 and at days 90.
The long-term objective is to identify a safe and easily administered treatment that improves functional outcome in diabetic patients.
|Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medica - Policlinico Umberto I|
|Rome, Italy, 00161|
|Principal Investigator:||Andrea Lenzi, MD, PhD||University of Roma La Sapienza|