Assess Safety and Efficacy of Levetiracetam(LEV;Keppra)for Seizure Prevention
To show that the use of intravenous levetiracetam(LEV;Keppra)for seizure prevention in patients in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit will result in fewer side effects compared to the current standard of care anticonvulsant and will be at least as effective as the current standard of care in preventing clinical and sub-clinical seizure activity.
Traumatic Brain Injury
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Assessment of Seizure Prophylaxis Protocols Using Intravenous Levetiracetam in a Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit|
- Seizure Incidence [ Time Frame: Duration of study, up to 6 months after the injury ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]This was the number of patients in each group who demonstrated seizure activity during the course of the study
- Extended Glasgow Outcome Score [ Time Frame: at discharge; 3 and 6 months following injury ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]This is an 8 point validated scale that measures disability after brain injury. It is assessed through an in person exam or by phone interview at hospital discharge, 3 months and 6 months after injury. The categories are: 1 = dead; 2 = vegetative state; 3 = severe disability, low level; 4 = severe disability, high level; 5 = moderate disability, low level; 6 = moderate disability, high level; 7 = good recovery - low level; 8 = good recovery - high level. Specific questions and activities are assessed to determine into which category the patient falls.
- Disability Rating Scale (DRS) [ Time Frame: Discharge; 3 and 6 months following injury ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The Disability rating scale (DRS) is frequently used in the rehabilitation literature as a measure of disability. It is a reliable, easily performed test that assesses 8 items (eye opening, verbalization, motor response, feeding, toileting, grooming, level of functioning, employability), and assigns each a numerical score ranging from 0 - 5 based on the category. The domains these 8 items are felt to assess include: alertness, cognition for self-care, dependence, and psychosocial adaptability. The scoring range is from 0-30, with increasing disability levels assigned to higher numerical values. The total DRS is then dichotomized into favorable (disability = none, mild, partial or moderate disability) and unfavorable (disability = moderately severe, severe, extremely severe, vegetative state, extreme vegetative state, death) outcomes. A DRS score of 0-6 was favorable, with any score greater than 6 categorized as unfavorable.
- Incidence of Adverse Events [ Time Frame: discharge; 3 and 6 months following injury ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
|Study Start Date:||August 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||September 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Levetiracetam
Group 1 - The levetiracetam (Keppra®) group will receive a loading dose of 20 mg/kg IV over 15 minutes (rounded to the nearest 250mg) up to a maximum of 2000 mg, then started on maintenance dose (1000 mg, IV BID)as prophylaxis for 7 days.
Levetiracetam group will receive a loading dose of 20 mg/kg IV(rounded to nearest 250mg) to a maximum of 2000mg, then started on maintenance dose (1000 mg,IV q 12h) as prophylaxis for seven days.
Other Name: Keppra
Active Comparator: Phenytoin
Group 2-The phenytoin group will receive a loading dose of 20 mg/kg IV to a maximum of 2000mg, then started on maintenance dose at 5 mg/kg/day (rounded to nearest 100mg dose, IV, divided into three doses a day) as prophylaxis for 7 days. Phenytoin levels are to be checked daily and dose adjusted as needed to maintain therapeutic levels of 10-20 µg/dL.
The group will receive a loading dose of fosphenytoin 20 mg/kg IV to a maximum of 2000 mg, then started on maintenance dose of 5mg/kg/day, rounded to nearest 100mg dose, IV, q 12h for seven days.
Other Name: Dilantin
To show that the use of intravenous levetiracetam(LEV;Keppra)for seizure prophylaxis in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit will result in fewer adverse effects compared to the current standard of care anticonvulsant(phenytoin) and will be at least as effective as phenytoin in preventing clinical and sub-clinical seizure activity.
|United States, Ohio|
|University of Cincinnati Hospital|
|Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45220|
|Principal Investigator:||Lori Shutter, MD||University of Pittsburgh|