Stress and Medication Effects on Cocaine Cue Reactivity

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Medical University of South Carolina
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00613015
First received: February 8, 2008
Last updated: October 16, 2013
Last verified: April 2013
  Purpose

Stressful situations and cues associated with cocaine can lead to craving in cocaine dependent individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine whether guanfacine or modafinil are effective in reducing stress and cue induced craving in cocaine dependent individuals.


Condition Intervention Phase
Cocaine Related Disorders
Drug: Guanfacine
Drug: Modafinil
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Official Title: Interdisciplinary Medication Development for Multiple Risk Factors in Relapse.

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Medical University of South Carolina:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Cocaine Craving- 2:30 pm, Immediately Following Trier + Cocaine Cue Exposure [ Time Frame: Post Trier social stress task + Cocaine Cue ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Participants were randomized to the modafinil, guanfacine, or placebo treatment group. Participants were then randomized to participate in the TRIER social stress task or to read magazines for 15 minutes. Following the task, participants were exposed to neutral cues for 2 minutes and cocaine cues for 2 minutes. Immediately following the cocaine cue exposure, participants were asked to rate cocaine craving on a 10-point Likert scale, with 0 being Not at All and 10 being Extremely.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Cortisol- 2:30 pm, Immediately Following Trier Social Stress Task + Cocaine Cue Exposure [ Time Frame: Immediately following trier + cocaine cue exposure ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Participants were randomized to receive to the modafinil, guanfacine, or placebo treatment group. Participants were then randomized to complete a TRIER social stress task or read magazines for 15 minutes. Following the task, participants were exposed to neutral cues for two minutes and control cues for two minutes. Immediately following exposure to the cocaine cue, saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels.


Enrollment: 109
Study Start Date: May 2008
Study Completion Date: July 2012
Primary Completion Date: July 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Modafinil/Stress
Participants received placebo for 2 days. modafinil on the third day and participated in the TRIER social stress task on the third day.
Drug: Modafinil
Experimental: Modafinil/no stress
Participants received placebo for 2 days. modafinil on the third day and did not participate in the TRIER social stress task on the third day.
Drug: Modafinil
Experimental: Guanfacine/stress
Participants received guanfacine for 3 days and participated in the TRIER social stress task on the third day.
Drug: Guanfacine
Experimental: Guanfacine/no stress
Participants received guanfacine for 3 days and did not participate in the TRIER social stress task on the third day.
Drug: Guanfacine
Placebo Comparator: Placebo/Stress
Participants received placebo for 3 days and participated in the TRIER social stress task on the third day.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo/no stress
Participants received placebo for 3 days and did not participate in the TRIER social stress task on the third day.

Detailed Description:

Stress and cocaine cues produce craving and ultimately relapse in cocaine dependent individuals. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of either guanfacine (Tenex) or modafinil (Provigil) on stress and cue induced craving in cocaine dependent individuals. Cocaine dependence will be assessed in adults (ages 18-65) as defined by DSM-IV criteria. If the subject signs the consent form, meets the study criteria and does not meet the exclusion criteria they will be included in the study. Subjects will report to the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), for an outpatient visit and will receive their first dose of study medication. The following day subjects will return to the GCRC and admitted for the duration of the study (two days and one night). There will be a one-week and a one-month follow-up visit. Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (guanfacine or placebo). Each subject will also be randomly assigned to either a stress or no-stress subgroup. On the test day (day 3) subjects in the stress group will be asked to perform a speech and a math problem in front of an audience (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while the no-stress group will be asked to sit quietly and read. Following these tasks, each subject will be exposed to neutral (control) cues and immediately afterwards the subjects will be exposed to cocaine cues (cocaine paraphernalia). Craving/mood, physiological activity, and endocrine responses, will be assessed at pre-set intervals throughout the testing procedure. The cue reactivity protocol will be repeated on the one-week follow-up visit.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Subjects must be able to provide informed consent and function at an intellectual level sufficient to allow accurate completion of all assessment instruments.

Subjects must consent to remain abstinent from all drugs of abuse (except nicotine) during the GCRC admission.

Because of the high comorbidity of alcohol and marijuana use and cocaine dependence, individuals meeting dependence for alcohol and marijuana will be included. Individuals requiring medical detox from alcohol will be excluded.

Subjects must consent to random assignment to stress vs. no stress and drug treatment conditions.

Exclusion Criteria:

Women who are pregnant, nursing or of childbearing potential and not practicing an effective means of birth control. Modafinil inhibits metabolism of steroidal contraceptives via CYP3A4 and can reduce the effectiveness of this type of birth control, female subjects must use one of the following methods of birth control: barrier methods (diaphragm or condoms with spermicide or both), surgical sterilization, use of an intra-uterine contraceptive device, or complete abstinence from sexual intercourse.

Subjects with evidence of or a history of significant hematological, endocrine, cardiovascular (including but not limited to left ventricular hypertrophy (unless a cardiologist deems that it is not clinically significant), mitral valve prolapse, left bundle branch block, myocardial infarction, and angina), pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, or neurological disease including diabetes, as these conditions may affect HPA axis function.

Subjects with any liver function test (LFTs) of greater than two times normal, as compromised liver function can interfere with HPA axis activity (Williams and Dluhy 1987) and may affect drug metabolism.

Subjects with Addison's disease, Cushing's disease or other diseases of the adrenal cortex likely to affect HPA axis function.

Subjects with a history of or current psychotic disorder or bipolar affective disorder as these may interfere with HPA function.

Subjects with current major depressive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder as these disorders are associated with characteristic changes in HPA axis function.

Subjects receiving synthetic glucocorticoid therapy, any exogenous steroid therapy, or treatment with other agents that interfere with HPA axis function within one month of the time of testing.

Subjects taking any psychotropic medications, opiates or opiate antagonists because these may affect HPA axis function.Participants taking SSRI's will be included.

Subjects required to take medications that could adversely interact with study medications, including, but not limited to, azole type antifungals, cyclosporine, warfarin, theophylline, or carbamazepine. Any medications that induce or inhibit CYP3A4 pathways are excluded, as modafinil is metabolized through this enzyme system.

Subjects with any acute illness or fever as this may affect HPA axis activity. Individuals who otherwise meet study criteria will be rescheduled for evaluation for participation.

Subjects who are grossly obese (BMI > 39), as this may interfere with HPA axis function.

Subjects who are unwilling or unable to maintain abstinence from alcohol and other drugs of abuse (except nicotine) prior to the stress task procedure.

Subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence (other than nicotine, cocaine, alcohol or marijuana) within the past 60 days.

  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00613015

Locations
United States, South Carolina
Medical University of South Carolina-GCRC
Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 29425
Sponsors and Collaborators
Medical University of South Carolina
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Ronald E See, Ph.D. Medical University of South Carolina
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Medical University of South Carolina
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00613015     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: RO1DA021690, R01DA021690
Study First Received: February 8, 2008
Results First Received: May 23, 2013
Last Updated: October 16, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Medical University of South Carolina:
Cocaine Addiction
Cocaine Dependence

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cocaine-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Mental Disorders
Modafinil
Guanfacine
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Central Nervous System Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Neuroprotective Agents
Protective Agents
Antihypertensive Agents
Cardiovascular Agents
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
Adrenergic Agonists
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 15, 2014