Primary Outcome Measures:
- cognitive-affective mediating units that are likely to be involved in health information processing and the execution of health-protective behavior [ Time Frame: 5 years 7 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Women at risk for hereditary breast cancer are recommended to undergo intensive surveillance to maximize the likelihood of detecting the disease at an early, more curable, stage (Burke et al. 1997, Eisenger et al. 1998, Moller et al. 1999). Although the particular recommendations of different groups have varied, all suggest programs that incorporate clinical and radiographic screening performed more frequently than in the general population, beginning at a considerably younger age. Recent studies demonstrating the sensitivity of breast MRI have led several groups to incorporate this technology as an incremental (not replacement) modality, further increasing the intensity of the surveillance regimen. While data are beginning to accumulate regarding the effectiveness of aggressive surveillance, little is known about the ability and willingness of women to adhere to these rigorous schedules, nor about the psychosocial and economic costs of the programs. Based upon the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP)model (Miller, Shoda, Hurley 1996), we hypothesize that the ability to adhere to a proposed screening regimen will result from a complex and dynamic interaction between the nature of that regimen, events that can be expected to occur in the course of screening (such as abnormal results and practical barriers) and key psychological factors such as the individual's attentional style, affective state, perceived risk of cancer, cancer-specific worries, and beliefs regarding the effectiveness of screening. To test the hypothesis, we propose to prospectively study women with a hereditary risk for breast cancer participating in a structured surveillance program of monthly breast self-examination, semi-annual clinical examination and annual mammography, augmented by annual interval breast MRI.