IV Keppra in the Emergency Department for Prevention of Early Recurrent Seizures
This study is looking at three seizure medicines. Patients with seizures are usually treated with phenytoin (Dilantin) or Fosphenytoin. These medicines can be given intravenously (IV)or by mouth. Another seizure medicine, levetiracetam (Keppra) can now be given this way also. This study will compare IV phenytoin (Dilantin) and IV fosphenytoin to levetiracetam (Keppra) in patients who have had a recent seizure. Only patients with a history of seizures can be involved. The patient must present to the emergency department within 4 hours of a seizure. The purpose of this study is to compare these three drugs, phenytoin (Dilantin), fosphenytoin, and levetiracetam (Keppra). The investigators are looking to see if these drugs can prevent another seizure in the next 24 hours. We are also looking for any possible side effects.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||IV Keppra in the Emergency Department for Prevention of Early Recurrent Seizures|
- Number of Participants Who Experienced a Recurrent Seizure After Treatment. [ Time Frame: 24 hours ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Recurrent seizure is defined as a seizure within 24 hours of treatment in the Emergency Department.
|Study Start Date:||July 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Phenytoin/Fosphenytoin
Patients in the control arm will receive either IV Dilantin (1 gram of IV phenytoin infused at 25 mg/min or slower depending on vitals) or IV Fosphenytoin (1 gram of IV Fosphenytoin infused at 15 mg/min or slower depending on vitals).
IV load will be dependant on dilantin level. If no dilantin is detected in the patient, the patient will receive 1 gram of IV Fosphenytoin infused at 15 mg/min or slower depending on vitals.
Other Names:Drug: Dilantin
IV load will be dependant on dilantin level. If no dilantin is detected in the patient, the patient will receive 1 gram of IV phenytoin infused at 25 mg/min or slower depending on vitals.
Active Comparator: Levetiracetam
Patients in the intervention arm will receive IV Keppra (1 gram of Keppra added to 100 mL diluent infused over 15 minutes).
The patient will receive 1 gram of Keppra added to 100ml diluent and will be infused over 15 minutes.
More than one in every one hundred patients presenting to the emergency department for care do so for seizures. More than half of these patients will require medications, often intravenously (IV), while in the emergency department. For many years the standard treatment has been phenytoin. However, there are many known contraindications to the use of this drug. These include known hypersensitivity, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, impaired liver or kidney function, diabetes mellitus, older age, thyroid disease, pregnancy, and alcohol use. A recent review of patients with seizure disorder at Emory Crawford Long and Emory University hospitals suggested that a significant percentage of those who were taking phenytoin actually had one or more of these contraindications. Additionally, the IV form of phenytoin has known, severe adverse effects including cardiovascular collapse, life threatening cardiac arrhythmias, and severe hypotension. There is another form of Phenytoin, called Fosphenytoin, that while safer in some respects still has similar concerns associated with its administration.
Levetiracetam (Keppra) has been available as an oral drug in the United States since 2000 and has a well established safety record when used as an add-on drug for patients with partial onset seizures. A double-blinded randomized study has shown that levetiracetam is also effective for primary generalized seizures as well.
The IV form of levetiracetam has recently been approved by the FDA for use. The only known contraindications other than known hypersensitivity include impaired renal function, psychiatric disorder, older age, and pregnancy. IV levetiracetam is not known to cause any of the acute, catastrophic events seen occasionally with phenytoin.
The investigators would therefore like to compare IV phenytoin and fosphenytoin to IV levetiracetam in preventing early recurrent seizures. Patients with known seizure disorders would be randomly assigned to one of two groups and therefore receive either IV fosphenytoin or IV levetiracetam. After an observation period, seizure free patients would be discharged and 24 hour phone follow up conducted to assess for the effectiveness of these anti-seizure medications as well as for any adverse reactions.