Effect of Short-Term Beta-Cell Rest in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
This study will determine whether resting beta cells (cells in the pancreas that produce insulin) for 2 weeks will improve the ability of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to make insulin. Beta cells can rest by giving patients insulin shots. The study will also examine how teenagers with T2DM feel about having diabetes and explore differences between young people with and without T2DM.
This study includes patients 12 to 25 years of age with T2DM who are overweight and who were diagnosed within 2 years of enrolling in the study. Healthy individuals of normal weight or who are overweight are also eligible. Candidates are screened with a medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests.
Participants with T2DM are assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 takes an anti-diabetes medicine called metformin and follows a diet prescribed by a study staff dietitian for 2 weeks. Group 2 takes metformin, follows the prescribed diet, and receives insulin through a pump under the skin for 2 weeks. During these two weeks, all participants have the following tests:
- Frequent blood sugar checks.
- Oral glucose tolerance test (routine diabetes test in which blood samples are drawn before and several times after the subject drinks a sugary solution).
- Arginine stimulation to test the response of the body to arginine, a normal ingredient of food that stimulates the release of insulin. Two catheters are placed into veins in the arms, one to administer a liquid containing arginine, the other to draw the blood samples.
- Ultrasound of the blood vessels in the neck to check for hardening of the arteries.
- Metabolism test to measure the amount of oxygen used during rest. The subject breathes normally during rest while wearing a canopy over his or her head for about 20 minutes.
- MRI scans of the abdomen to examine the amount of fat in the belly (at the beginning and end of the study)
- DEXA scan to determine percent body fat.
- Tests to explore quality of life and feelings about health, work or school, friends and family.
- Exercise testing on a treadmill or stationary bicycle.
- Genetic studies for information on diabetes and obesity.
Normal volunteers have blood draws, oral glucose tolerance testing, MRI scan, DEXA scan, psychological testing, exercise testing, and genetic testing.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
|Official Title:||Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young Adults|
- To acquire data on the natural history of T2DM in youth. [ Time Frame: 12-months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- To conduct pilot studies of glucose metabolism and diabetes in youth. [ Time Frame: 12-months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||March 2007|
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a condition characterized by insulin resistance and progressive failure of the insulin-secreting beta-cells. Previously considered a disease of adults, it is now becoming increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents. Patients with childhood onset T2DM are at very high risk for diabetes-related morbidity and mortality, due to a longer life-time duration of diabetes, as well as possible increased rapidity of Beta-cell failure.
In this study, we will address the following aims:
To characterize hormonal, metabolic, and behavioral traits in patients with youth-onset type 2 diabetes. These will include:
- Assessment of Beta-cell function and insulin resistance
- Psychological, demographic, and socioeconomic assessments
- Assessment of the physiology and pathophysiology of incretins and other gut hormones
- Identification of early biomarkers of diabetes complications, especially cardiovascular disease
- Validation of new methods for studying glucose metabolism
- To serve as a recruitment and development tool for hypothesis-driven pilot studies, discussed in the appendices of this protocol.
Children and young adults ages 8 to 25 years with type 2 diabetes will be studied in a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner. Two control groups without diabetes will be studied for comparison purposes: healthy lean controls, and overweight/obese controls. Methods used to study participants include routine blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance testing, mixed meal testing, arginine stimulation testing, DEXA, MRI, carotid ultrasound, questionnaires, exercise physiology, and measurements of energy expenditure. Patients with type 1 diabetes will be studied using oral glucose tolerance and mixed meal tests in a pilot study of artificial sweeteners.
|Contact: Alexandra L Gardner||(301) firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Kristina I Rother, M.D.||(301) email@example.com|
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike||Recruiting|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office (PRPL) 800-411-1222 ext TTY8664111010 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator:||Kristina I Rother, M.D.||National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)|