Study of Azacitidine to Treat Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma
This is a Phase II trial evaluating the overall response rate, safety and tolerability to azacitidine in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Prospective, Single-Arm, 2-Stage, Open-label, Phase II Trial of Azacitidine in Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.|
- Overall response rate
- time to progression
- duration of response
- number of cycles of azacitidine required to first achieve a response
- progression free survival
|Study Start Date:||December 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease with an annual incidence of 14,000 new cases in the US alone. Despite initial sensitivity to corticosteroids, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, relapse is inevitable and there is a median survival of only 2.5 to 3 years. The use of autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) has improved the duration of disease remission for younger patients but still only results in a median survival of 5 - 6 years.
Since the early 1970s, azacitidine has been investigated for the treatment of acute leukemia. More recently it has been investigated in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (a pre-leukaemic condition). It has been shown to prolong the time to development of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or death and has now been approved for use in these patients.
Azacitidine is a cytotoxic drug and is directly toxic to cells, preventing their reproduction or growth. It is also able to cause cells to undergo the process whereby they mature into normal cells. The Myeloma Research Group at The Alfred Hospital has looked at the effect of azacitidine on human myeloma cell lines in the laboratory. Azacitidine was found to prevent both cell growth and causes cell death. In mouse models with multiple myeloma azacitidine prolonged their survival.
The primary aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of azacitidine in treating patients with multiple myeloma. The other aims of this study are to see whether treating patients with azacitidine extends the time that their myeloma is under control, to determine the number of cycles of azacitidine required to first achieve a response and to determine how safe and tolerable azacitidine is in treating multiple myeloma.
In the first stage a total of 14 people will participate in this project. If in this group of patients azacitidine is shown to be effective as a treatment against multiple myeloma then a further 10 patients will be invited to participate.