Clofarabine and Cytarabine in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Children's Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00372619
First received: September 6, 2006
Last updated: December 13, 2013
Last verified: December 2013
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as clofarabine and cytarabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more cancer cells.

PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of clofarabine when given together with cytarabine and to see how well they work in treating young patients with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (Phase I closed to enrollment as of 09/16/09)


Condition Intervention Phase
Leukemia
Drug: clofarabine
Drug: cytarabine
Drug: methotrexate
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Phase 1
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Study of CLOLAR® (Clofarabine, IND# 73, 789) in Combination With Cytarabine in Pediatric Patients With Refractory/Relapsed Leukemia

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Children's Oncology Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Overall Response [ Time Frame: End of therapy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Overall response, defined as a complete remission (CR) or remission without platelet recovery (CRp).


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Safety and Tolerability as Measured by CTCAE v3.0 [ Time Frame: End of therapy ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Correlate the Expression of Apoptosis Specific Genes [ Time Frame: End of therapy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Correlate the expression of apoptosis specific genes with chemoresistance and determine whether therapy with clofarabine is able to overcome blocks in apoptosis through modulation of gene expression. Gene expression analysis will be performed on specimens obtained during therapy. Apoptosis specific microarray data will be analyzed using GeneTraffic software (Iobion Informatics, La Jolla CA).


Enrollment: 74
Study Start Date: March 2007
Primary Completion Date: August 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Clofarabine 40 mg/m² to assess feasibility in ALL patients.
Clofarabine 40 mg/m² to assess feasibility in ALL patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 40 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 40 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 40 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Experimental: Clofarabine 40 mg/m² to assess feasibility in AML patients.
Clofarabine 40 mg/m² to assess feasibility in AML patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 40 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 40 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 40 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Experimental: Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess feasibility in ALL patients.
Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess feasibility in ALL patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 52 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Experimental: Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess efficacy in ALL patients.
Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess efficacy in ALL patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 52 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Experimental: Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess feasibility in AML patients.
Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess feasibility in AML patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 52 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Experimental: Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess efficacy in AML patients
Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess efficacy in AML patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 52 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Experimental: Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess efficacy - ambiguous lineage pt
Clofarabine 52 mg/m² to assess efficacy in acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage patients. Patients receive Cycle 1 (14-42 days) Cytarabine IT (aged based dosage 1-1.99 30 mg, 2-2.99 50 mg, ≥ 3 years 70 mg on Day 0, Clofarabine IV (dosage 52 mg/m2/dose) on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Cycle 2 (14-42 days) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5. Maintenance cycles 1-10 (14-42 days each) Methotrexate IT (age based dosage 1-1.99 8 mg, 2-2.99 10 mg, ≥ 3 12 mg) on day 1, Clofarabine IV 52 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5, and High Dose Cytarabine IV 1000 mg/m2/dose on days 1-5.
Drug: clofarabine
Given IV for 5 days
Other Names:
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • CAFdA
  • 2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Clolar
  • Evoltra
  • NSC# 606,869
  • IND # 73,789
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Cytosine arabinoside
  • Ara-C
  • Cytosar
  • NSC #063878
Drug: methotrexate
Given intrathecally or IT age based dosage
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • amethopterin
  • Trexall
  • NSC #000740
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis

Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVES:

Primary

  • To define the overall response rate (complete remission or remission without platelet recovery) in young patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with clofarabine in combination with cytarabine.

Secondary

  • To determine the safety profile and tolerability of clofarabine when given in combination with cytarabine in patients with and without prior stem cell transplantation.
  • To identify apoptosis specific genes that are important in mediating response to clofarabine and cytarabine.
  • To quantitate the level of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins (hENT1 and hENT2) and human concentrative nucleoside transporter proteins (hCNT2 and hCNT3) in blasts of these patients.
  • To determine gene expression profiles at study entry and at time of relapse in order to isolate profiles that may predict response and also to complement apoptosis specific protein arrays.
  • To perform serial measurements of minimal residual disease (MRD) to provide an objective determination of the effectiveness of this treatment regimen and to correlate with post remission events (relapse, death).
  • To perform FLT3/ITD analysis to help determine the prevalence and clinical significance of this somatic mutation in patients with relapsed AML.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter, phase I, dose-escalation study of clofarabine followed by a phase II study. Patients are stratified according to disease (acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] vs acute myeloid leukemia [AML]). (Phase I closed to accrual as of 09/16/09)

  • Intrathecal CNS prophylaxis (all patients with ALL and at physician's discretion for patients with AML or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage): Patients receive intrathecal (IT) cytarabine on day 0 of the first course of induction therapy. Patients also receive IT methotrexate on day 1 of the second course of induction therapy and on day 1 of all courses of maintenance therapy.
  • Induction therapy:

    • Course 1: Patients receive cytarabine IV over 2 hours and clofarabine IV over 2 hours on days 1-5. Patients with ≥ 5% blasts (i.e., M2 or M3 bone marrow) at days 14-21 proceed immediately to course 2 of induction therapy. Patients with < 5% blasts (i.e., M1 bone marrow) may proceed to course 2 of induction therapy at blood count recovery or at day 42.
    • Course 2: Patients receive clofarabine IV over 2 hours followed by cytarabine IV over 2 hours on days 1-5. After the second course of induction therapy, patients with M2 or M3 bone marrow at days 14-21 are removed from the study. Patients with M1 bone marrow proceed to maintenance therapy 14-42 days after the initiation of course 2.
  • Maintenance therapy: Patients receive clofarabine and cytarabine as in induction therapy. Treatment repeats every 14-42 days for up to 10 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Patients may undergo blood and bone marrow sample collection periodically for correlative laboratory studies.

After completion of study therapy, patients are followed periodically for up to 5 years.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 87 patients will be accrued for this study.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   1 Year to 30 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Histologically confirmed diagnosis of 1 of the following:

    • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with ≥ 5% blasts in the bone marrow (M2/M3 bone marrow) with or without extramedullary disease
    • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with > 25% blasts in the bone marrow (M3 bone marrow) with or without extramedullary disease
    • Acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage with ≥ 5% blasts in the bone marrow (M2/M3 bone marrow) with or without extramedullary disease
  • Disease must have relapsed after or be refractory to prior induction therapy

    • Patients with AML or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage must be in first relapse OR refractory to first induction therapy with ≤ 1 attempt at remission induction

      • Patients with AML who enroll on the phase I portion of the study must have received prior mitoxantrone hydrochloride and cytarabine for newly diagnosed AML (phase I closed to accrual as of 09/16/09)
    • Patients with ALL must be in second or third relapse (≤ 3 prior induction regimens) OR refractory to reinduction in first relapse

      • Patients with ALL refractory to first induction therapy are not eligible
  • No acute promyelocytic leukemia
  • No CNS 3 involvement (i.e., WBC ≥ 5/μL in the cerebrospinal fluid with blasts present on cytospin)

PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Karnofsky performance status (PS) 50-100% (> 16 years of age) OR Lansky PS 50-100% (≤ 16 years of age) OR ECOG PS 0-2
  • Life expectancy ≥ 8 weeks
  • Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate ≥ 70 mL/min
  • Direct bilirubin ≤ 1.5 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • ALT < 2.5 times ULN (unless it is related to leukemic involvement)
  • Shortening fraction ≥ 27% by echocardiogram OR ejection fraction ≥ 45% by gated radionuclide study
  • No evidence of dyspnea at rest or exercise intolerance
  • Pulse oximetry > 94% at room air
  • Amylase ≤ 1.5 times ULN
  • Lipase < 1.5 times ULN
  • No active, uncontrolled grade 3 or 4 infection
  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception during and for ≥ 3 months after completion of study treatment
  • No known hepatitis B or C infection or history of cirrhosis

PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY:

  • See Disease Characteristics
  • Recovered from all prior therapy*
  • At least 14 days since prior cytotoxic therapy (except hydroxyurea and intrathecal chemotherapy)*
  • At least 7 days since prior biologic agent*
  • At least 14 days since prior monoclonal antibody therapy*
  • No more than 1 prior autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    • No evidence of active graft-vs-host disease
    • At least 4 months since transplantation
  • No other concurrent chemotherapy or immunomodulating agents
  • No other concurrent investigational therapy NOTE: *Patients who relapse during ALL maintenance therapy do not require a waiting period.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00372619

  Show 79 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Children's Oncology Group
Investigators
Study Chair: Bassem I. Razzouk, MD St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital
Study Chair: Todd Cooper, DO University of Alabama at Birmingham
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided

Responsible Party: Children's Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00372619     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: AAML0523, CDR0000494654, NCI-2009-00319, COG-AAML0523
Study First Received: September 6, 2006
Results First Received: December 13, 2013
Last Updated: December 13, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Children's Oncology Group:
recurrent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
recurrent childhood acute myeloid leukemia
acute undifferentiated leukemia
adult acute minimally differentiated myeloid leukemia (M0)
childhood acute minimally differentiated myeloid leukemia (M0)
adult acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (M1)
childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (M1)
adult acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation (M2)
childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation (M2)
adult acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4)
childhood acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4)
adult acute monoblastic leukemia (M5a)
childhood acute monoblastic leukemia (M5a)
adult acute monocytic leukemia (M5b)
childhood acute monocytic leukemia (M5b)
adult erythroleukemia (M6a)
adult pure erythroid leukemia (M6b)
childhood acute erythroleukemia (M6)
adult acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7)
childhood acute megakaryocytic leukemia (M7)
recurrent adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia
recurrent adult acute myeloid leukemia

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Leukemia
Leukemia, Lymphoid
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Leukemia, Myeloid
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Lymphatic Diseases
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Cytarabine
Methotrexate
Clofarabine
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal
Abortifacient Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Dermatologic Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 24, 2014