A Pilot Study of Peribulbar Triamcinolone Acetonide for Diabetic Macular Edema

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by:
Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00369486
First received: August 25, 2006
Last updated: May 12, 2011
Last verified: May 2011
  Purpose

The study involves the enrollment of patients over 18 years of age with diabetic macular edema involving the center of the macula who have not already been given maximal laser treatment.

Patients with one study eye will be randomly assigned (stratified by prior laser) with equal probability to one of five treatment groups:

  1. Focal laser photocoagulation (modified ETDRS technique)
  2. Posterior peribulbar injection of 40 mg triamcinolone (Kenalog)
  3. Anterior peribulbar injection of 20 mg triamcinolone
  4. Posterior peribulbar injection of 40 mg triamcinolone followed after one month by laser
  5. Anterior peribulbar injection of 20 mg triamcinolone followed after one month by laser

For patients with two study eyes (both eyes eligible at the time of randomization), the right eye (stratified by prior laser) will be randomly assigned with equal probabilities to one of the five treatment groups listed above. If the right eye was assigned to laser only, then the left eye will be assigned to one of the four triamcinolone groups above with equal probability (stratified by prior laser). If the right eye was assigned to receive triamcinolone, then the left eye will receive laser only.

Triamcinolone acetonide will be the corticosteroid utilized in this study. The triamcinolone acetonide preparation to be used is Kenalog. Kenalog is manufactured by Bristol Myers Squibb and is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for intramuscular use for a variety of indications. Peribulbar injections of Kenalog have been used for a wide variety of ocular conditions, particularly uveitis and post-cataract extraction cystoid macular edema, for many years.

Two different triamcinolone regimens will be assessed in the study: 40 mg injected posteriorly and 20 mg injected anteriorly. There is no indication of which treatment regimen will be better. Although the injection behind the eye is more common than the injection near the front of the eye, the injection near the front of the eye has less risk of injuring the eye. However, it is possible that the injection near the front of the eye may increase eye pressure more frequently. Little is known about which of the two injections decreases macular edema and improves vision more often.

Patients enrolled into the study will be followed for three years and will have study visits 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 8 months and annually after receiving their assigned study treatment. For the first 8 months of the study, patients should only be retreated with their randomized treatment. However, if the patient's visual acuity has decreased by 15 letters or more, then any treatment may be given at the investigator's discretion. After completion of the 8-month visit, treatment is at investigator discretion.

The primary objective of this study is to obtain estimates of efficacy and safety outcomes for each of the treatment groups. These estimates will provide a basis for the sample size estimation and hypothesis generation in a phase III trial.


Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetic Macular Edema
Procedure: Focal laser photocoagulation
Drug: 40mg triamcinolone
Drug: 20mg triamcinolone
Drug: 40mg triamcinolone + laser
Drug: 20mg triamcinolone + laser
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Pilot Study of Peribulbar Triamcinolone Acetonide for Diabetic Macular Edema

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Central Subfield Thickening From Baseline Through 34 Weeks [ Time Frame: 4, 8, 17, 34 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in Central Subfield Thickening from Baseline measured on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images were obtained at each visit following pupil dilation by a certified operator using the OCT3 machine (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA). Scans were 6 mm length and included the 6 radial line pattern for quantitative measures and the cross hair pattern (6-12 to 9-3 o'clock) for qualitative assessment of retinal morphology. Negative changes represent a decrease in retinal thickening.

  • Change in Visual Acuity Letter Score From Baseline Through 34 Weeks [ Time Frame: 4, 8, 17, and 34 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in visual acuity letter score as measured by a certified tester using an electronic visual acuity testing machine based on the electronic Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study(E-ETDRS) technique. Letter score best value = 97 and worst value = 0; an increase in a letter score by 10 is considered clinically significant. Negative changes represent a worsening in visual acuity.

  • Mean Visual Acuity Letter Score at Each Follow-up Visit [ Time Frame: 4, 8, 17, and 34 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) mean visual acuity letter score: best value = 97; letter score worst value = 0


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Persistence/Recurrence of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) Either Retreated or Meeting Criteria for Retreatment at 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of eyes that were retreated at 17 weeks. According to the protocol, primary criterion for retreatment was central subfield thickness >=250 microns or macular edema was still present according to the investigator's judgment.

  • Reduction of ≥ 50% in Retinal Thickening in the Central Subfield From Baseline Through 34 Weeks [ Time Frame: 4, 8, 17, 34 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of eyes that had a reduction in central subfield retinal thickness by ≥ 50% at each follow-up. Change in Central Subfield Thickening from Baseline measured on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images were obtained at each visit following pupil dilation by a certified operator using the OCT3 machine (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA). Scans were 6 mm length and included the 6 radial line pattern for quantitative measures and the cross hair pattern (6-12 to 9-3 o'clock) for qualitative assessment of retinal morphology.

  • Central Subfield Thickness <250 Microns From Baseline Through 34 Weeks [ Time Frame: 4, 8, 17, 34 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Primary criterion for retreatment is central subfield thickness >=250 microns. Central subfield thickness of <250 microns indicates no need for retreatment. Change in Central Subfield Thickening from Baseline measured on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images were obtained at each visit following pupil dilation by a certified operator using the OCT3 machine (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA). Scans were 6 mm length and included the 6 radial line pattern for quantitative measures and the cross hair pattern (6-12 to 9-3 o'clock) for qualitative assessment of retinal morphology.


Enrollment: 113
Study Start Date: December 2004
Study Completion Date: October 2007
Primary Completion Date: June 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: 1
Focal laser photocoagulation (modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) technique)
Procedure: Focal laser photocoagulation
Focal laser photocoagulation (modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study technique)
Other Name: focal/grid laser
Experimental: 2
Posterior peribulbar injection of 40 mg triamcinolone (Kenalog)
Drug: 40mg triamcinolone
Posterior peribulbar injection of 40 mg triamcinolone (Kenalog)
Other Name: Kenalog
Experimental: 3
Anterior peribulbar injection of 20 mg triamcinolone
Drug: 20mg triamcinolone
Anterior peribulbar injection of 20 mg triamcinolone
Other Name: Kenalog
Experimental: 4
Posterior peribulbar injection of 40 mg triamcinolone followed after one month by laser
Drug: 40mg triamcinolone + laser
Posterior peribulbar injection of 40 mg triamcinolone followed after one month by laser
Other Names:
  • Kenalog
  • focal/grid photocoagulation
Experimental: 5
Anterior peribulbar injection of 20 mg triamcinolone followed after one month by laser
Drug: 20mg triamcinolone + laser
Anterior peribulbar injection of 20 mg triamcinolone followed after one month by laser
Other Names:
  • Kenalog
  • focal/grid photocoagulation

  Show Detailed Description

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Subject Level Criteria Inclusion

To be eligible, the following inclusion criteria (1-4) must be met:

  1. Age ≥18 years
  2. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2)
  3. At least one eye meets the study eye criteria
  4. Able and willing to provide informed consent.

    Study Level Exclusion Criteria

    A patient is not eligible if any of the following exclusion criteria (5-13) are present:

  5. History of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis or kidney transplant.
  6. A condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude participation in the study (e.g., unstable medical status including blood pressure and glycemic control). Patients in poor glycemic control who, within the last 4 months, initiated intensive insulin treatment (a pump or multiple daily injections) or plan to do so in the next 4 months should not be enrolled.
  7. Participation in an investigational trial within 30 days of study entry that involved treatment with any drug that has not received regulatory approval at the time of study entry.
  8. Known allergy to any corticosteroid or any component of the delivery vehicle.
  9. History of systemic (e.g., oral, IV, IM, epidural, bursal) corticosteroids within 4 months prior to randomization or topical, rectal, or inhaled corticosteroids in current use more than 2 times per week.
  10. History of steroid-induced intraocular pressure elevation that required IOP-lowering treatment in either eye.
  11. Warfarin (coumadin) currently being used.
  12. Blood pressure > 180/110 (systolic above 180 OR diastolic above 110). If blood pressure is brought below 180/110 by anti-hypertensive treatment, patient can become eligible.
  13. Patient is expecting to move out of the area of the clinical center to an area not covered by another clinical center during the next 8 months.

    The patient must have at least one eye meeting all of the inclusion criteria (a-e) and none of the exclusion criteria (f-t) listed below:

    Study Eye Inclusion Criteria

    1. Best corrected electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) visual acuity score of ≥69 letters (i.e., 20/40 or better).
    2. Definite retinal thickening due to diabetic macular edema based on clinical exam.
    3. Retinal thickness in the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) central subfield measuring 250 microns or more.
    4. Maximal laser has not already been given and investigator believes that either peribulbar steroids or laser may benefit the eye (note: subjects may be enrolled without having received prior macular laser).
    5. Media clarity, pupillary dilation, and patient cooperation sufficient for adequate fundus photographs and OCT.

      Study Eye Exclusion Criteria

    6. Macular edema is considered to be due to a cause other than diabetic macular edema.
    7. An ocular condition is present such that, in the opinion of the investigator, visual acuity would not improve from resolution of macular edema (e.g., foveal atrophy, pigmentary changes, dense subfoveal hard exudates, nonretinal condition).
    8. An ocular condition is present (other than diabetes) that, in the opinion of the investigator, might affect macular edema or alter visual acuity during the course of the study (e.g., vein occlusion, uveitis or other ocular inflammatory disease, neovascular glaucoma, Irvine-Gass Syndrome, etc.).
    9. History of prior treatment with intravitreal, peribulbar, or retrobulbar corticosteroids for DME.
    10. History of focal/grid macular photocoagulation within 15 weeks (3.5 months) prior to randomization. Note: Patients are not required to have had prior macular photocoagulation to be enrolled.
    11. History of panretinal scatter photocoagulation (PRP) within 4 months prior to randomization or anticipated need for PRP in the 4 months following randomization.

    m. History of prior vitrectomy.

    n. History of major ocular surgery (including cataract extraction, scleral buckle, any intraocular surgery, etc.) within prior 6 months or anticipated within the next 6 months following randomization.

    o. History of YAG capsulotomy performed within 2 months prior to randomization.

    p. Intraocular pressure ≥25 mmHg.

    q. History of open-angle glaucoma (either primary open-angle glaucoma or other cause of open-angle glaucoma; note: angle-closure glaucoma is not an exclusion). A history of ocular hypertension is not an exclusion as long as (1) intraocular pressure is <25 mm Hg, (2) the patient is using no more than one topical glaucoma medication, (3) the most recent visual field, performed within the last 12 months, is normal (if abnormalities are present on the visual field they must be attributable to the patient's diabetic retinopathy), and (4) the optic disc does not appear glaucomatous. Note: if the intraocular pressure is 22 to <25 mm Hg, then the above criteria for ocular hypertension eligibility must be met.

    r. History of prior herpetic ocular infection.

    s. Exam evidence of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    t. Exam evidence of pseudoexfoliation.

    A patient may have two "study eyes" only if both are eligible at the time of randomization.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00369486

Sponsors and Collaborators
Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network
Investigators
Study Chair: Emily Chew, M.D. National Eye Institute (NEI)
  More Information

Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Roy W. Beck, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Jaeb Center for Health Research (DRCR.net)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00369486     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NEI-104, U10EY018817-03, U10EY014229-07, U10EY014231-09
Study First Received: August 25, 2006
Results First Received: October 14, 2009
Last Updated: May 12, 2011
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network:
diabetic
macular
edema
peribulbar
triamcinolone
acetonide
laser
photocoagulation
intraocular
DME

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Edema
Macular Edema
Signs and Symptoms
Macular Degeneration
Retinal Degeneration
Retinal Diseases
Eye Diseases
Triamcinolone hexacetonide
Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone Acetonide
Triamcinolone diacetate
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions
Glucocorticoids
Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 19, 2014