Phase II 5-Azacytidine Plus VPA Plus ATRA
5-aza is a chemotherapy drug with activity in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Researchers hope that valproic acid (VPA) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)will increase the effects of 5-aza. The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest safe dose of valproic acid (VPA) that can be given in combination with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the treatment of AML and MDS. The safety and effectiveness of this combination therapy will also be studied.
Additional blood and bone marrow samples will be requested. These samples will be used to evaluate the effect of the treatment on leukemic cells. In addition, any leftover blood and bone marrow samples that are collected at the start of the study and during the regularly scheduled evaluations to be sent for research studies. The research studies will examine changes in the blood and bone marrow cells that might help explain the causes of leukemia and MDS and how the combination of 5-aza, VPA, and ATRA works.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Drug: 5-Azacytidine (5-aza)
Drug: Valproic Acid
Drug: All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA)
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Phase II Study of the Combination of 5-azacytidine With Valproic Acid and All-trans Retinoic Acid in Patients With High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia|
- Number of Participants With Response [ Time Frame: Up to 12 cycles of treatment (28 day cycles) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Clinical activity of combination defined as: Complete Response (CR), bone marrow with 5% or fewer blasts and peripheral blood count with an absolute neutrophil count of 10^9/L or more and platelet count of 100x10^9 or more; Complete response without platelets (CRp), a complete response except for a platelet count less than 100x10^9 and transfusion independent; and Bone Marrow (BM) Response, bone marrow blast of 5% or less but without meeting the peripheral blood count criteria for (CR) or (CRp).
|Study Start Date:||July 2005|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2007|
|Primary Completion Date:||July 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: VPA + 5-aza + ATRA
Daily for 7 days, Valproic acid (VPA) starting dose 75 mg/m^2 subcutaneously in combination with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) 50 mg/kg orally; and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) 45 mg/m^2 orally daily (in two divided doses) for 5 days starting on day 3.
Drug: 5-Azacytidine (5-aza)
Start at 75 mg/m^2 subcutaneously daily for 7 days.
Other Names:Drug: Valproic Acid
50 mg/kg daily by mouth for 7 days, same days as 5-aza.
Other Name: DepakeneDrug: All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA)
45 mg/m^2 orally daily (in two divided doses) for 5 days starting on day 3 of the administration of 5-aza and VPA.
Recent studies have shown synergy between demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. In my laboratory, we have developed in vitro models using HL-60 and MOLT4 leukemic cells to study the effects of the combination of decitabine (a 5-azacytidine analogue) and valproic acid. Valproic acid is an antiepileptic agent with histone deacetylase inhibitory capacity. These results indicate that the addition of valproic acid to decitabine has an additive effect on growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, induction of p57KIP2 and p21CIP1 expression independent of cell cycle arrest. These results were dependent on the dose and duration of treatment but not on the sequence used. Based on this data, we developed a phase I/II study of the combination of decitabine and valproic acid (2003-0314) in patients with leukemia that has shown that valproic acid can be safely administered up to doses of 50 mg/kg orally for 10 days in combination with decitabine, and that this combination has significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory AML and MDS. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a biological agent that has been shown to induce cell differentiation in leukemia cell lines and has significant clinical activity in acute promyelocytic leukemia with minimal toxicity. In vitro, the combination of ATRA with either a hypomethylating agent or a histone deacetylase inhibitor has been shown to restore ATRA sensitivity in resistant cells. More recently, a German group has reported that the combination of valproic acid and ATRA has activity in patients with MDS and an excellent toxicity profile. 5-azacytidine is a nucleoside analogue with hypomethylating activity that has been shown in a randomized study to benefit patients with MDS, including an improvement in quality of life. Based on this data, this agent was recently approved by the FDA for its use in patients with MDS, and has become the first line agent for patients with MDS that required therapy.
The objectives of the clinical trial are the following:
- To determine the maximal tolerated dose of valproic acid (VPA) in combination with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) and all-trans retinoic acid.
- To determine the clinical activity of the combination of 5-azacytidine, valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid in patients with AML and MDS.
- To determine the in vivo molecular and biological effects of this combination. These will include analysis of changes in Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone modifications, and gene expression.
|United States, Texas|
|The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|
|Houston, Texas, United States, 77030|
|Principal Investigator:||Guillermo Garcia-Manero, MD||M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|