Cyclophosphamide and rATG With Hematopoietic Stem Cell Support in Systemic Scleroderma

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Richard Burt, MD, Northwestern University Identifier:
First received: January 15, 2006
Last updated: April 4, 2013
Last verified: April 2013

Scleroderma is a systemic disorder categorized as an immunologically mediated disease that causes collagen deposition of skin and visceral organs. The molecular pathogenesis of scleroderma has been elusive, although vasculopathy and immune mediated mechanisms are thought to be important. Once extensive cutaneous or visceral disease occurs, prognosis is significantly shorter than the general population. Although various treatments have been tried, none of them seems to have changed the natural history of scleroderma. Standard dose immunosuppressive treatment has been disappointing. Recently, cyclophosphamide at 1-2 mg/kg/day orally or 800-1400 mg IV monthly for 6-9 months has proven effective in treatment of scleroderma alveolitis (1). Recent phase I studies of immunoablation with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) showed some promising data, but the exact efficacy is undetermined (2,3). We now propose, as a phase II randomized study, autologous unmanipulated PBSCT versus pulse cyclophosphamide in patients with systemic scleroderma.

Condition Intervention Phase
Drug: standard of care
Procedure: stem cell transplantation
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Trial of High Dose Cyclophosphamide and rATG With Hematopoietic Stem Cell Support in Patients With Systemic Scleroderma: A Randomized Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Northwestern University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Improvement is defined as a 25% improvement in the skin score or 10% improvement in lung function on (DLCO, DLCO/VA, FVC) [ Time Frame: 5 years after transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Enrollment: 19
Study Start Date: September 2005
Study Completion Date: December 2012
Primary Completion Date: September 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: stem cell trasplantation
intervention as stem cell transplantation after conditioning regimen
Procedure: stem cell transplantation
The following is intervention: stem cell transplantation after conditioning regimen
Other Name: stem cell transplant, stem cell injection
Active Comparator: standard of care
medication as standard of care will be given
Drug: standard of care
standard of care medication will be given

Detailed Description:

To evaluate the efficacy of two treatment modalities: pulse cyclophosphamide versus high dose cyclophosphamide and ATG rescued with autologous PBSCT. The primary endpoints to be considered in this study are:

I)Time to Treatment Failure -Treatment failure will not occur until a minimum of 12 months after enrollment at which time failure is defined as:

  1. Failure of skin score (if > 14 on enrollment) to improve or increase in skin score by a 25% above lowest post treatment value and must be documented on 2 occasion 6 months apart
  2. Deterioration in DLCO, DLCO/VA or FVC by 10% below enrollment level or 10% below best post treatment value, due to systemic sclerosis, and documented on 2 occasion 6 months apart
  3. Renal failure due to systemic sclerosis and defined as chronic dialysis for more than 12 months
  4. Gastrointestinal failure due to systemic sclerosis and defined as initiation of TPN for more than 12 months

II) Disease improvement defined by at least 25% improvement in skin score (Rodnan), or 10% improvement in pulmonary function tests (DLCO, DLCO/VA, or FVC), or in cardiac tests (PA systolic pressure by right heart cath) that persists > 6 months or ability to wean off TPN


Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 60 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 60 year or < 60 year old at the time of pretransplant evaluation.
  • An established diagnosis of scleroderma (125).
  • Diffuse cutaneous scleroderma with involvement proximal to the elbow or knee and a Rodnan score (see Appendix V) of > 14 (126)


Scleroderma with any one of the following:

  • DLCO < 80% of predicted or decrease in lung function (DLCO, DLCO/VA or FVC) of 10% or more over 12 months.
  • Active alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage.
  • Pulmonary fibrosis or alveolitis on CT scan or CXR (ground glass appearance of alveolitis).
  • Renal disease that is not explained by a bacterial infection or other renal disorders. (Subjects must have two or more of the following: proteinuria - greater than trace on dipstick, hematuria - urine blood on dipstick or sediment, hypertension that requires treatment with anti-hypertensive medications or untreated but with a diastolic BP > 95 mm/hg.)
  • Abnormal EKG (non-specific ST-T wave abnormalities, low QRS voltage, or ventricular hypertrophy), or pericardial effusion or pericardial enhancement on MRI
  • Gastrointestinal tract involvement confirmed on radiological study. Radiologic findings of scleroderma are small bowel radiographs showing thickened folds with dilated loops, segmentation, and flocculation +/- diverticulae, or pseudodiverticulae. A hide-bound appearance due to valvulae packing i.e. dilated and crowded circular folds, may be present. GI involvement may also be confirmed by D-xylose malabsorption, patulous esophagus, or esophageal manometry.


As published in NEJM, 2006, 345:25 2655-2709. Limited or diffuse SSL with lung involvement defined as active alveolitis on BAL or ground-glass opacity on CT, a DLCO < 80% predicted or decrease in lung function (DLCO/VA,DLCO, FVC) of 10% or more in last 12 months.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Poor performance status (ECOG 2) at the time of entry.
  • Significant end organ damage such as:

    1. LVEF < 40% or deterioration of LVEF during exercise test on MUGA or echocardiogram.
    2. Untreated life-threatening arrhythmia.
    3. Active ischemic heart disease or heart failure.
    4. End-stage lung disease characterized by TLC<45% of predicted value.
    5. Pulmonary hypertension (systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 40 mmHg or mean PAP > 25 mmHG measurement by pulmonary arterial catheter).
    6. Serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl.
    7. Liver cirrhosis, transaminases > 3x of normal limits or bilirubin > 2.0 unless due to Gilberts disease.
    8. Pericardial effusion> 200ml unless successful pericardiacentesis
    9. Tricuspid annular peak systolic excursion (TAPSE) ≤ 1.9 cm
    10. MRI of heart showing D sign (intraventricular flattering)
  • HIV positive.
  • Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or any other illness that in the opinion of the investigators would jeopardize the ability of the patient to tolerate aggressive treatment.
  • Prior history of malignancy except localized basal cell or squamous skin cancer. Other malignancies for which the patient is judged to be cured by local surgical therapy, such as (but not limited to) head and neck cancer, or stage I or II breast cancer will be considered on an individual basis.
  • Positive pregnancy test, inability or unable to pursue effective means of birth control, failure to willingly accept or comprehend irreversible sterility as a side effect of therapy.
  • Psychiatric illness or mental deficiency making compliance with treatment or informed consent impossible.
  • Inability to give informed consent.
  • Major hematological abnormalities such as platelet count < 100,000/ul or ANC < 1000/ul.
  • Patients with duration of disease > 5 years.
  • Exclude if > than 6 prior monthly IV cyclophosphamide treatments.
  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00278525

United States, Illinois
Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611
Sponsors and Collaborators
Richard Burt, MD
Principal Investigator: Richard Burt, MD Northwestern University
  More Information

No publications provided by Northwestern University

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Richard Burt, MD, MD, Northwestern University Identifier: NCT00278525     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: DI Scl.Randomized2004
Study First Received: January 15, 2006
Last Updated: April 4, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Scleroderma, Systemic
Scleroderma, Diffuse
Scleroderma, Localized
Connective Tissue Diseases
Skin Diseases
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Antirheumatic Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Myeloablative Agonists processed this record on April 16, 2014