Disulfiram in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma
Melanoma remains a malignancy that is largely resistant to chemotherapy. Metastatic disease responds poorly to the treatments used today with only 2 out of 30 drugs tested, DTIC and nitrosoureas, showing response rates greater than 10%, and complete responses are rare. DTIC-based regimen has been recognized as a standard chemotherapy for advanced melanoma, and temozolomide demonstrated efficacy equal to that of DTIC and is an oral alternative agent that also crosses the blood brain barrier. Randomized phase III trials have shown no survival benefit of adding other agents (cisplatin, BCNU, and tamoxifen). Biochemotherapy is being developed extensively with moderate improvement in the responsive rate (approximately 50%) and is under evaluation in randomized trial to identify whether there is survival benefit to this strategy, compared with chemotherapy alone. Recently, a randomized phase III study comparing chemotherapy (cisplatin, dacarbazine, and tamoxifen) with biochemotherapy (the same chemotherapy regimen plus high-dose IL-2 and interferon alfa) have shown 44% response rate for biochemotherapy vs. 27% for chemotherapy. However, the tendency toward an increased response rate in patients who received biochemotherapy did not translate into an increase in overall survival, and there was, in fact, a trend for a survival advantage in patients receiving chemotherapy alone (median survival: 10.7 vs 15.8 months). New agents (or combinations) need to be developed for this refractory malignancy.
The purpose of this study is to determine the response rate and evaluate the toxicity of disulfiram (DSF) in the treatment of Stage IV melanoma.
The advantages of using DSF in this phase I/II trial are the following:
- DSF has been used as a drug for many years for the treatment of alcoholism. Its mechanism, pharmacokinetics, toxicity/tolerable dose are well known, and this drug is relatively non-toxic by itself at therapeutic dose. Doses of greater than 3000mg/m2 can cause reversible confusion.
- DSF can be taken orally; therefore, it is convenient to administer.
- DSF can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (unlike dacarbazine and many other chemotherapy agents); therefore, it might have an active effect on CNS metastasis.
This study is designed to include women and minorities, but is not designed to measure differences of intervention effect.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Evaluation of Disulfiram in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma and at Least One Prior Systemic Therapy, Phase I/II|
- Determine response rate [ Time Frame: Every 8 weeks during therapy ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Complete response (CR)-Complete disappearance of all measurable and evaluable disease. No disease related symptoms. No evidence of non-evaluable disease, including normalization of markers and other abnormal lab values. Partial response (PR)-Applies only to patients with at least one measurable lesion. Greater than or equal to 50% decrease under baseline in the sum of products of perpendicular diameters of all measurable lesions. No progression of evaluable disease. For both CR and PR, no new lesions. All assessments use the same techniques as baseline.
- Evaluate the toxicity of disulfiram administration [ Time Frame: Lab tests-Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24; X-rays/scans-Every 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Accelerated titration designs are used for the maximum tolerated dose.
Patients will remain at one dose level for one week before escalated to the next higher dose level, providing that no grade II or III toxicity occurs.
Phase II is to use the maximum tolerated dose of DSF (as described above) to determine the response rate. Evaluation of toxicities will be continued. Dose reduction (switch to the next lower dose) will be carried out if patient develops grade III/IV toxicities, and this dose reduction applies to both phase I and phase II.
|Study Start Date:||January 2002|
|Study Completion Date:||August 2007|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Drug: Disulfiram (DSF)
DSF pills at 250 mg will be given orally, two times a day. If this dose is tolerated, the dose will be escalated until the maximum tolerated dose is reached. Treatment will continue every day for 3 months or longer unless the disease gets worse, the side effects are too dangerous for the subject, or the subject decides to discontinue treatment.
Other Name: bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide
|United States, California|
|Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center|
|Orange, California, United States, 92868|
|Principal Investigator:||John Fruehauf, MD||Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center|