Pilot Study to Evaluate a Method of Controlling High Blood Sugar in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Recent studies of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients have shown significantly decreased morbidity and mortality when blood sugar concentrations are closely controlled. The safety and efficacy of this type of blood sugar management has not been studied in the pediatric ICU population. Based on the current pediatric literature data as well as our extensive retrospective study, blood sugar concentrations have a potentially profound role to play among PICU patients. In preparation for a multi-center randomized control trial, we propose a prospective feasibility study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of using an insulin delivery algorithm to manage blood sugar in the PICU. Our hypothesis for this feasibility trial is that uniformly monitoring and controlling blood glucose with a Discrete-Closed-Loop(DCL) insulin delivery algorithm will be an effective, safe, and consistent means of delivering insulin to manage glucose in the pediatric intensive care unit.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Pilot Study Evaluating Use of Insulin-Glucose Algorithm and Glucose Monitoring Techniques to Control Hyperglycemia in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit|
- Specific Aim #1 Intervention): Randomized study of strict glucose control in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) using a discrete-closed-loop (DCL) insulin algorithm.
- Safely reach and maintain a glucose range goal of 90-120 mg/dl in the treatment group within 4 hrs of initiating therapy.
- Maintain at least 90% of glucose values within the target range.
- Have fewer than 1% of glucose values below 50 mg/dl.
- d) Show a significant difference in glucose values (mean glucose values and area under the curve) between the Treatment and Control group.
|Study Start Date:||October 2005|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||March 2006|
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated that long-term microvascular complications from hyperglycemia could be reduced in adolescents and adults by intensive diabetes management.1 Hyperglycemia has also been shown to be an acute risk factor for poor outcome in a variety of adult cases including trauma, cardiac,2 surgical, stroke, and head injury patients.
Moreover, control of hyperglycemia improves the outcome of these critically ill adult patients in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. In a prospective randomized study, Van den Berghe et al. reported on 1,548 patients admitted to an adult surgical ICU. During admission, intensive treatment with intravenous insulin to control hyperglycemia in both diabetics and non-diabetics reduced the risk of death by 42%, overall in-hospital mortality by 34%, sepsis by 46%, and acute renal failure by 41%.3 Utilizing less stringent criteria for glycemic control, Finney et al. also reported similar findings.4
While these studies have emphasized the value of controlling hyperglycemia in the adult ICU, there have been relatively few studies evaluating the incidence of hyperglycemia, and its correlates, in the PICU, and no interventional studies. 5,6
Because of the limited pediatric data available and the impressive findings displayed in the adult literature, we performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients admitted to our PICU over a 13 month period. The goals of this study were to gain a better understanding of current glucose monitoring techniques in the PICU as well how hyperglycemia correlates with morbidity and mortality in pediatrics.
The results confirmed our hypothesis that a higher peak glucose during an admission is associated with longer LOS and a higher mortality rate. 7
As demonstrated in adults, control of hyperglycemia has the potential to have a profound impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients in the PICU. Our preliminary study clearly showed that hyperglycemia is associated with increased LOS and mortality. Unfortunately, the true clinical impact of controlling hyperglycemia on pediatric ICU patients is not known. By more accurately and more safely controlling hyperglycemia in the PICU, we have the opportunity to improve on the standard of care as well as to potentially improve the overall clinical outcome of PICU patients. Once the use of an insulin delivery algorithm and our methods for glucose monitoring have been explored in this randomized controlled feasibility study, this form of improved glucose management can be formally tested in a large multi-center trial in the PICU setting.
|United States, California|
|Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital - PICU|
|Stanford, California, United States, 94305|
|Stanford University School of Medicine|
|Stanford, California, United States, 94305|
|Sub-Investigator:||Bruce A. Buckingham||Stanford University|
|Sub-Investigator:||Darrell M Wilson||Stanford University|