Mechanism of Fatty Acid-Induced Impairment of Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion
A prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion. The concept of fatty acid impairment of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (lipotoxicity) has now been well accepted. Increased free fatty acid flux from adipose tissue to non-adipose tissue, resulting from abnormalities of fat metabolism, participates in and amplifies many of the metabolic derangements that are characteristic of insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
Lipotoxicity is also likely to play an important role in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to fasting hyperglycemia and conversion to frank type 2 diabetes in insulin resistant individuals. This area of research is now focused on determining the mechanisms whereby FFAs impair b-cell function. There is some evidence to suggest that lipotoxicity could be mediated through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a known potent antioxidant and has been used experimentally in a number of medical conditions in humans for its protective antioxidant effects. The investigators now plan to administer NAC orally to humans for 48 hours to examine the effects of antioxidant therapy in ameliorating the deleterious effects of FFAs on pancreatic beta cell function. NAC is currently approved for the treatment of acetaminophen overdose and is also used as a mucolytic agent. The investigators are now using NAC as an antioxidant to determine whether it protects the pancreatic beta cell against the toxic effects of FFAs, as outlined in the detailed study protocol. This is a proof-of-principle study and is not designed to develop n-acetylcysteine for therapeutic use.
Insulin Resistance Syndrome X
Pancreatic Beta Cell Function
Drug: N-acetylcysteine, intralipid, heparin
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
- To determine whether the FFA-induced impairment of pancreatic b-cell function can be ameliorated or prevented by administration of the antioxidant, NAC [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Assessment of insulin sensitivity [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- To determine whether administration of NAC, an antioxidant, prevents FFA-mediated impairment of GSIS in healthy humans. [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- assessment of glucose stimulated insulin secretion [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||January 2004|
|Study Completion Date:||January 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Drug: N-acetylcysteine, intralipid, heparin
Free fatty acids will be elevated approximately 2-fold for 48 hours by intravenous infusion of Intralipid and heparin. 15 abdominally obese insulin resistant, but otherwise healthy, non-diabetic men will be studied on three occasions each, in random order, 4 weeks apart. We have chosen to study abdominally obese, insulin resistant individuals rather than lean healthy controls because we have previously shown that these individuals are more susceptible to lipotoxicity and we are therefore more likely to see differences between the interventions if differences indeed exist. Informed written consent will be obtained from all participants in accordance with the guidelines of the Human Subjects Review Committee of the University Health Network.
Subjects will be hospitalized in the Metabolic Investigation Unit (MIU) of the Toronto General Hospital for each of their three studies, which will be performed in random order 4 to 6 weeks apart. On one occasion a saline control study will be performed, on a second occasion Intralipid (20% solution @ 40ml/hr) and heparin (250u/hr) will be infused for 48 hours as previously described and on a third occasion NAC will be administered orally concurrently with the Intralipid and heparin. The dose of NAC will be the same as that recommended for acetaminophen overdose. An initial loading dose of 140mg/kg NAC followed by a maintenance dose of 70mg/kg every 4 hours during the 48 hour infusion of Intralipid and heparin. On day three, testing of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) will occur as outlined below. Subjects will be provided with an isocaloric diet consisting of 50% calories derived from carbohydrates, 30% fat and 20% protein during the 48 hour infusions and will fast from midnight for the testing of pancreatic beta cell function on day three.
|University Health Network|
|Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 2C4|
|Principal Investigator:||Gary F. Lewis, MD||University Health Network, Toronto|