Amphotericin Alone or in Combination With Fluconazole for AIDS-Associated Meningitis

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00145249
First received: September 2, 2005
Last updated: May 10, 2012
Last verified: October 2009
  Purpose

This study will examine the effectiveness and safety of a combination treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, a fungal infection common in persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developing world. The standard initial treatment includes two medications: amphotericin B for 2 weeks followed by 8 weeks of fluconazole. This study will look at whether study participants recover more quickly and have fewer side effects if they are given both drugs at the same time for 2 weeks followed by 8 weeks of fluconazole as compared to the standard treatment. Participants will be followed for approximately 6 months from the time they are enrolled into the study.


Condition Intervention Phase
Cryptococcal Meningitis
Drug: Amphotericin B
Drug: Fluconazole
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II Randomized Trial of Amphotericin B Alone or Combined With Fluconazole in the Treatment of AIDS-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Grade 3-5 Adverse Experiences That Are Definitely or Probably Related to Study Drug [ Time Frame: Day 100 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Events are reported by MedDRA Preferred Term.

    Grade 3 - Severe. Incapacitating; inability to perform usual activities and daily tasks; significantly affects clinical status; requires therapeutic intervention.

    Grade 4 - Life-threatening. AE is life-threatening.

    Grade 5 - Death. AE causes death.


  • Number of Dose-limiting Toxicities Attributed to Treatment Regimens [ Time Frame: Day 100 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Events are reported by MedDRA Preferred Term.

    Dose limiting toxicities include events that resulted in study drug being adjusted, interrupted, or discontinued.



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Deaths [ Time Frame: 14, 42, and 70 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Number of deaths occurring on study.

    Day = Day relative to the first dose of study drug.


  • Number of Subjects With Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Culture Conversion at Multiple Time Points [ Time Frame: Baseline, 14, 42, and 70 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of subjects that have a negative fungal culture at Baseline, Day 14, Day 42, and Day 70.

  • Number of Subjects Meeting the Key Efficacy Endpoint of Treatment Success [ Time Frame: 14, 42, and 70 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Treatment success is defined as a composite of the 3 mycologic and clinical measures: CSF culture conversion; neurologically stable or improved; and alive

  • Number of Subjects Reporting Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) [ Time Frame: 14, 42, and 70 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Number of subjects reporting immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) following treatment.

    Day = Day relative to first dose of study drug


  • Mean Days of Hospitalization [ Time Frame: 7, 14, 42, and 70 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Mean days of hospitalization. Includes days subject was hospitalized prior to study enrollment for current hospital stay.

  • Number of Cryptococcal Isolates With Antifungal Susceptibility [ Time Frame: Days 14 and 70 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Isolates were collected at days 14 and 70 for assessment of antifungal susceptibility.

  • Mean Change in Neurological Exam Score From Baseline - Day 14 [ Time Frame: Baseline and Day 14 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Neurological assessment by Mini-mental Status Exam (MMSE). This is collected as a continuous variable with values from 0-30; where lower scores indicate greater impairment.

  • Mean Change in Neurological Exam Score From Baseline - Day 42 [ Time Frame: Baseline and Day 42 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Neurological assessment by Mini-mental Status Exam (MMSE). This is collected as a continuous variable with values from 0-30; where lower scores indicate greater impairment.

  • Mean Change in Neurological Exam Score From Baseline - Day 70 [ Time Frame: Baseline and Day 70 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Neurological assessment by Mini-mental Status Exam (MMSE). This is collected as a continuous variable with values from 0-30; where lower scores indicate greater impairment.

  • Mean Change in Neurological Exam Score From Baseline - Day 168 [ Time Frame: Baseline and Day 168 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Neurological assessment by Mini-mental Status Exam (MMSE). This is collected as a continuous variable with values from 0-30; where lower scores indicate greater impairment.


Enrollment: 143
Study Start Date: May 2005
Study Completion Date: April 2008
Primary Completion Date: April 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Standard Therapy
Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg for 14 day followed by fluconazole 400 mg daily for 8 weeks. For subjects in the standard therapy arm whose Amphotericin B dose is continued beyond 14 days, fluconazole initiation will be delayed.
Drug: Amphotericin B
Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg IV for the first 14 days of treatment. This period may be extended up to an additional 7 days.
Drug: Fluconazole
Fluconazole 400 or 800 mg daily. Among subjects whose baseline weight is less than 40 kg, randomized fluconazole doses will be 200 mg/kg daily or 400 mg/kg daily.
Experimental: Fluconazole Low Dose
Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg and the randomized dose of fluconazole at 400 mg/day for the first 14 days, then the randomized dose of fluconazole at 400 mg/day respectively for an additional 8 weeks.
Drug: Amphotericin B
Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg IV for the first 14 days of treatment. This period may be extended up to an additional 7 days.
Drug: Fluconazole
Fluconazole 400 or 800 mg daily. Among subjects whose baseline weight is less than 40 kg, randomized fluconazole doses will be 200 mg/kg daily or 400 mg/kg daily.
Experimental: Fluconazole High Dose
Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg and the randomized dose of fluconazole at 800 mg/day for the first 14 days, then the randomized dose of fluconazole at 800 mg/day respectively for an additional 8 weeks.
Drug: Amphotericin B
Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg IV for the first 14 days of treatment. This period may be extended up to an additional 7 days.
Drug: Fluconazole
Fluconazole 400 or 800 mg daily. Among subjects whose baseline weight is less than 40 kg, randomized fluconazole doses will be 200 mg/kg daily or 400 mg/kg daily.

Detailed Description:

This study is designed to address the need for more effective antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. This is a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter phase II clinical trial of combination therapy for the treatment of acute cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-positive subjects. The primary study objectives will be to assess the safety and tolerability of the study drug regimens; and to determine whether the safety and efficacy of combination therapy supports development of a phase III trial of combination therapy, and if so, to select the most appropriate dose of fluconazole plus amphotericin B based on safety and efficacy to be evaluated in a subsequent phase III trial. Secondary study objectives include: comparing the efficacy of the study drug treatments at 2, 6, and 10 weeks (Days 14, 42, and 70); comparing the findings on detailed neurological examination between study arms at baseline and 2, 6, 10, and 24 weeks (6 months); assessing the proportion of subjects in each study arm that are alive at 6 months after initiation of study therapy; describing the effects of baseline clinical, neurological, and mycological characteristics on mycological failure at 2 and 10 weeks; measuring time to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture negatively for each study arm; assessing the length of hospitalization in the treatment groups as a surrogate of cost efficacy; assessing the incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome among all subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); and examining antifungal susceptibility of all cryptococcal isolates. Study participants will include 150 subjects ages 13 and older. Subjects will be randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms including 1 standard therapy and 2 investigational arms. The standard treatment arm will include amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg (IV) for 14 days followed by 8 weeks (56 days) of fluconazole at 400 mg/day orally. The 2 investigational arms will include daily amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg (IV) and the randomized dose of fluconazole 400 mg/day or 800 mg/day for the first 14 day, then the randomized dose of fluconazole at 400 mg/day or 800 mg/day respectively for an additional 8 weeks (56 days). At the completion of study therapy, all subjects will receive chronic suppressive therapy with oral fluconazole at a dose of at least 200 mg/day. The safety endpoints are considered to be the primary endpoints for this study. The safety assessment for each treatment arm will end at study day 100 for each subject. The key safety endpoint will be the incidence of adverse experiences of grade 3-5 (total and attributed to the treatment regimens). The primary safety endpoint will examine the incidence of grade 3-5 adverse experiences that are definitely or probably related to study drugs, while secondary analysis will include grade 3-5 adverse experiences that are, definitely probably or possibly related to study drugs. Another secondary safety endpoint will be the number of dose-limiting toxicities attributed to the treatment regimens. Key efficacy endpoint (treatment success) will be a composite of the following 3 mycologic and clinical measures after 14, 42, and 70 days of therapy: CSF culture conversion; neurologically stable or improved; and alive. Other secondary efficacy endpoints that will be evaluated descriptively are: CSF culture conversion at multiple time points; all-cause mortality; length of hospitalization; and incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • First episode of cryptococcal meningitis as evidenced by a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stain or cryptococcal antigen, CSF culture pending
  • Documentation of proven diagnosis of HIV-1 infection by acceptable labs at any time in the past: this testing includes Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or approved rapid testing method with confirmation by Western blot, a second positive ELISA, a positive HIV antigen, or HIV RNA detection.

OR

-Presumptive diagnosis of HIV-1 by approved rapid testing method at screening. This testing must be confirmed by a second ELISA (or Western blot), a positive HIV antigen, or HIV RNA detection within 10 days of study entry.

OR

  • Presumptive HIV+. If serologic testing is not available, a history of an AIDS-defining illness (Category C, CDC, 1993) or any of the following conditions: extrapulmonary Pneumocystis carinii disease; multi-dermatomal herpes zoster (>10 lesions in a non-contiguous site); American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) of the CNS; Penicillium marneffei disease; visceral leishmaniasis; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of any cell-type; Hodgkin's lymphoma; bartonellosis; microsporidiosis (>1 month's duration); nocardiosis; invasive aspergillosis; or Rhodococcus equi disease. Confirmation of HIV infection by lab testing, i.e., ELISA or approved rapid testing method with confirmation by Western blot, a second positive ELISA, a positive HIV antigen, or HIV RNA detection must be performed within 10 days of study entry.
  • Subjects who are 13 years of age or greater.
  • Baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) with QTc interval less than or equal to 500 milliseconds as determined by use of Fredericia's Correction formula.
  • Ability of subject or legally authorized representative to give informed consent. For subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, sites will follow their own individual Institutional Review Board (IRB) policy regarding the informed consent process.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy. Urine or serum testing must be performed at study entry or within the 7 days prior to study entry.
  • Women of childbearing potential unwilling to use a medically approved and highly effective form of birth control while on study drug and for 2 weeks after last dose. Acceptable forms of birth control include an intrauterine device (IUD), oral contraceptives, condoms, abstinence, injectable contraceptive, or any other highly effective means of birth control. (A highly effective method of birth control is defined as those which result in a low failure rate [i.e. less than 1 percent per year] when used consistently and correctly.) Emergency contraceptive treatment and coitus interruptus are not considered effective forms of contraception.
  • Breastfeeding.
  • A concurrent central nervous system (CNS) process that in the opinion of the investigator would interfere with assessment of response, such as lymphoma, toxoplasmosis, or tuberculosis.
  • Other conditions that in the opinion of the investigator would jeopardize the safety of a subject participating in the study or would render the subject unable to comply with the study plan, such as homelessness or IV drug use.
  • Estimated creatinine clearance of less than 50 mL/min. NOTE: Testing must be performed at study entry or within the 7 days prior to study entry.
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) greater than 5x the upper limit of normal or bilirubin greater than 2.5 x the upper limit of normal. Results from tests performed within the 7 days prior to study entry may be used.
  • Known intolerance of or allergy to fluconazole or amphotericin B.
  • Subjects unlikely to survive for 2 weeks.
  • Coma.
  • More than 3 days of any systemic antifungal therapy for this fungal infection, or the need for concurrent systemic antifungal therapy, including flucytosine or interferon-g. Subjects taking fluconazole at less than or equal to 200 mg/day for prophylaxis are not excluded.
  • Inability to take oral medications.
  • Subjects who have received the following drugs within 7 days of study enrollment: rifampin, rifamycin, rifabutin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, or long-acting barbiturates.
  • Subjects who are receiving nevirapine at baseline.
  • Strong clinical suspicion of untreated active tuberculosis. (Patients on anti-TB therapy not including rifampin or rifamycin may be eligible.)
  • Previous participation in this study or ongoing participation in another trial with an investigational drug.
  • Prior case of cryptococcosis with diagnosed central nervous system involvement.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00145249

Locations
United States, Alabama
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35255
United States, California
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90033
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90502
United States, Colorado
University of Colorado
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80291-0238
United States, Florida
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32610
University of Miami
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136-1096
United States, Louisiana
Tulane University Health Sciences Center
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Michigan
Harper University Hospital
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48201
United States, Texas
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Texas Medical Center - Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Thailand
Mahidol University - Siriraj Hospital - Medicine
Bangkok, Thailand, 10700
Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University
Bangkok, Thailand, 10400
Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50200
Khon Kaen University
Khon Kaen, Thailand, 40002
Bamrasnaradura Institution
Nonthaburi, Thailand, 11000
Sponsors and Collaborators
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00145249     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 03-154, BAMSG 3-01
Study First Received: September 2, 2005
Results First Received: March 18, 2010
Last Updated: May 10, 2012
Health Authority: Thailand: Ethical Committee
United States: Federal Government
United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Bacterial infections, HIV infection, cryptococcal meningitis

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Meningitis
Meningitis, Cryptococcal
Central Nervous System Infections
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Meningitis, Fungal
Central Nervous System Fungal Infections
Mycoses
Cryptococcosis
Fluconazole
Amphotericin B
Liposomal amphotericin B
Antifungal Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions
14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Amebicides
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Anti-Bacterial Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 30, 2014