Combination Immunosuppressive Therapy to Prevent Kidney Transplant Rejection in Adults

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Wisconsin, Madison
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00078559
First received: March 1, 2004
Last updated: July 25, 2012
Last verified: July 2012
  Purpose

Transplant rejection occurs when a patient's body does not recognize the new organ and attacks it. Patients who have kidney transplants must take drugs to prevent transplant rejection. Alemtuzumab is a man-made antibody used to treat certain blood disorders. The purpose of this study is to test the safety and effectiveness of using alemtuzumab in combination with two other drugs, sirolimus and tacrolimus, to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation. This study will also test whether this combination of medications will allow patients to eventually stop taking antirejection medications entirely.

Study hypothesis: A new strategy of immunosuppression using alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, and sirolimus for human renal transplantation will permit a step-wise withdrawal from immunosuppressive drugs.


Condition Intervention Phase
Kidney Transplantation
Kidney Disease
Drug: Alemtuzumab
Drug: Sirolimus
Drug: Tacrolimus
Procedure: Kidney transplant
Drug: Methylprednisolone (or equivalent)
Drug: Acetaminophen
Drug: Diphenhydramine
Drug: Trimethoprim (TMP)/Sulfa (Bactrim, Septra)
Drug: Valgancyclovir
Drug: Acyclovir
Drug: Pentamidine
Drug: Clotrimazole
Drug: Nystatin
Phase 1
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Campath-1H/Tacrolimus/Sirolimus Withdrawal in Renal Transplantation (ITN013ST)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of Wisconsin, Madison:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Acute Rejections in All Enrolled Participants [ Time Frame: Four years post-transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Number of acute rejections[1] in all enrolled subjects from the time of transplantation to the end of the trial (four years post-transplant)

    1. Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy-proven rejection: a renal biopsy demonstrates acute cellular or humoral rejection of Banff[2] Grade 1B or greater; or presumed rejection in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection, the participant is treated for an unexplained 20% increase in serum creatinine.
    2. Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Acute Rejections in All Enrolled Participants Following Sirolimus Withdrawal [ Time Frame: Transplantation to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Following sirolimus withdrawal, the number of acute rejections[1] in all enrolled participants

    1] Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy-proven rejection: a renal biopsy demonstrates acute cellular or humoral rejection of Banff[2] Grade 1B or greater; or presumed rejection in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection, the participant is treated for an unexplained 20% increase in serum creatinine.

    [2] Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999


  • Number of Acute Rejections Between Initiation of Sirolimus Withdrawal and End of Study [ Time Frame: Initiation of sirolimus to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Acute rejections[1] between initiation of sirolimus withdrawal and end of study

    1] Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy-proven rejection: a renal biopsy demonstrates acute cellular or humoral rejection of Banff[2] Grade 1B or greater; or presumed rejection in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection, the participant is treated for an unexplained 20% increase in serum creatinine.

    [2] Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999


  • Time From Transplantation to Acute Rejection in Participants for Whom Sirolimus Withdrawal Was Not Initiated [ Time Frame: Transplantation to acute rejection (up to four years post-transplantation) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Time (days) to acute rejection[1] for participants where sirolimus was not initiated

    1] Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy-proven rejection: a renal biopsy demonstrates acute cellular or humoral rejection of Banff[2] Grade 1B or greater; or presumed rejection in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection, the participant is treated for an unexplained 20% increase in serum creatinine.

    [2] Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999


  • Time From Transplantation to Acute Rejection in Participants for Whom Acute Rejection Occurred During the 1 Year Post-transplant Period [ Time Frame: Transplantation to acute rejection (up to one year post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Time (days) to acute rejection[1] for participants occurring during the year following transplantation

    1] Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy-proven rejection: a renal biopsy demonstrates acute cellular or humoral rejection of Banff[2] Grade 1B or greater; or presumed rejection in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection, the participant is treated for an unexplained 20% increase in serum creatinine.

    [2] Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999


  • Number of Deaths Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to Death (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Participants who died during the study, all cause(s)

  • Number of Participants Who Experienced Graft Loss Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to Graft Loss (up to four years post-transplantation) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Participants who experienced graft loss[1] during study

    [1]Graft loss is defined as the institution of chronic dialysis (at least 6 consecutive weeks, excluding participants with delayed graft function), transplant nephrectomy, or retransplantation


  • Number of Severe Acute Rejections Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to severe acute rejection (up to four years post-transplantation) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Participants who experienced severe acute rejections[1] during study

    1. Severe acute rejection is defined as that which requires treatment with anti-lymphocyte antibody or is histologically evaluated as Type IIA or greater using the Banff 1997 criteria[2]
    2. Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999

  • Number of Participants Requiring Anti-lymphocyte Therapy for an Acute Rejection, Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to acute rejection (up to four years post-transplantation) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Participants who experienced acute rejection[1] during study which required anti-lymphocyte (OKT3, ATG) therapy

    1] Acute rejection is defined as a biopsy-prove rejection: a renal biopsy demonstrates acute cellular or humoral rejection of Banff[2] Grade 1B or greater; or presumed rejection in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection, the participant is treated for an unexplained 20% increase in serum creatinine.

    [2] Reference: Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al,The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int,55: 713-723, 1999


  • Number of Alemtuzumab Associated Adverse Events, Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Number of Tacrolimus Associated Adverse Events, Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Number of Sirolimus Associated Adverse Events, Stratified by Sirolimus Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Number of Side Effects of Conventional Immunosuppression, Stratified by Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Side effects of conventional immunosuppression include increased body weight and hypertension

  • Change in Renal Function as Measured by Serum Creatinine, Stratified by Withdrawal Status [ Time Frame: Transplantation to end of study (up to four years post-transplant) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Mean change from transplantation to Month 48 in serum creatinine. Normal serum creatinine range is from 0.7 - 1.4 mg/dL. In a transplant population, starting serum creatinine is higher than normal range. A negative change indicates better renal function


Enrollment: 10
Study Start Date: November 2003
Study Completion Date: February 2010
Primary Completion Date: February 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Alemtuzumab Drug: Alemtuzumab
30mg intravenous infusion on days 0 (transplant), 1, and 2
Drug: Sirolimus
2mg/day orally within 24-48 hrs post-transplant, and adjusted to achieve blood levels of 8-12 ng/mL for 1 year
Drug: Tacrolimus
2mg orally twice daily, on days 1-60
Procedure: Kidney transplant
Kidney transplant with primary cadaveric or non-HLA-identical living donor kidney (0-3 HLA-antigen mismatch)
Drug: Methylprednisolone (or equivalent)
250 mg intravenous infusion 60 minutes prior to first dose of alemtuzumab
Drug: Acetaminophen
650 mg may be given 30-60 minutes prior to start of each infusion of alemtuzumab to prevent infusion related side effects such as fever, skin rash and pruritis
Drug: Diphenhydramine
25 mg may be given 30-60 minutes prior to start of each infusion of alemtuzumab to prevent infusion related side effects such as fever, skin rash and pruritis
Drug: Trimethoprim (TMP)/Sulfa (Bactrim, Septra)
1 double strength tablet 3 times a week from day 1 through 1 year post-transplant.
Drug: Valgancyclovir
Given orally beginning on day 1 for up to 10 days post-transplant (until participant discharged from hospital if prior to 10 days). Dose adjusted based on participants calculated creatinine clearance
Drug: Acyclovir
400 mg orally twice daily or 800 mg orally four times daily (dose adjusted based on calculated creatinine clearance and cytomegalovirus antibody serologic status of donor and recipient) for a minimum of 3 months starting when valganciclovir discontinued.
Drug: Pentamidine
300 mg/6 mL inhalation therapy once monthly for a total of 6 treatments. First treatment given within one week post-transplant for participants with a known allergy or intolerance to sulfa
Drug: Clotrimazole
10 mg orally four times daily for a minimum of 3 months post-transplant (subjects take either clotrimazole or nystatin, not both)
Drug: Nystatin
500,000 units/5 mL orally four times daily for a minimum of 3 months post-transplant (subjects take either nystatin or clotrimazole, not both)

Detailed Description:

Drugs that suppress the immune system, such as sirolimus and tacrolimus, have contributed to increased success of transplantation. However, to prevent organ rejection, transplant recipients need to take immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives, and these drugs make patients more susceptible to infection, endangering their health and survival. Regimens that are less toxic to or can eventually be withdrawn from transplant recipients are needed. Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and depletes excess T cells in the bone marrow of leukemia patients. This study will determine the effects of intravenous alemtuzumab and oral sirolimus and tacrolimus after kidney transplantation. The study will also evaluate this regimen's potential to allow eventual discontinuation of components of long-term immunosuppressive therapy.

This study will last up to 4 years. Participants will undergo kidney transplantation on Day 0 and will receive intravenous doses of alemtuzumab, acetaminophen, and diphenhydramine on Days 0, 1, and 2, as well as methylprednisolone on Day 0. After transplant, patients will receive up to 10 days of valganciclovir or acyclovir. Participants will take tacrolimus daily by mouth for at least 60 days after transplant and sirolimus daily by mouth for at least 12 months after transplant. As part of opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis, participants will also take sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim by mouth 3 times a week, valganciclovir or acyclovir for up to 10 days post-transplant, and clotrimazole or nystatin by mouth for at least 3 months post-transplant.

There will be a minimum of 62 study visits spread out over 4 years after transplant. Vital signs measurement, adverse event and OI reporting, medication history, physical exam, and blood collection will occur at selected visits. Sirolimus withdrawal will begin when a participant meets certain study criteria. The withdrawal process will occur over a minimum of 3 months at an approximate rate of 33% of the pre-withdrawal dose per month. Participants eligible for sirolimus withdrawal will undergo several kidney biopsies, including one 2 weeks prior to the start of withdrawal, 6 and 12 months after completion of withdrawal, 1 year after study enrollment, and annually thereafter.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

  • Kidney transplant with primary cadaveric or non-Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-identical living donor kidney (0-3 HLA-antigen mismatch)
  • Receiving only a kidney and no other organs
  • Able to take medications by mouth
  • Willing to use acceptable methods of contraception

Exclusion Criteria

  • Received HLA-identical living-donor kidney transplant
  • HLA-antigen mismatch greater than 3
  • Panel reactive antibody (PRA) value greater than 10% at any time prior to enrollment
  • Received a non-heart-beating donor allograft
  • Received a kidney from a donor who is greater than 60 years of age
  • End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) due to Focal Segmental Glomulerosclerosis (FSGS)
  • Previous kidney transplant
  • Received multiorgan transplant
  • Concomitant systemic corticosteroid therapy for other medical diseases
  • Known hypersensitivity to alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, or sirolimus
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected
  • Hepatitis C virus infected
  • Positive for hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Received dual or en-bloc pediatric kidneys
  • Anti-human Globulin (AHG) or T cell crossmatch positive
  • Investigational drug within 6 weeks of study entry
  • Known clinically significant cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease
  • Previous or current history of cancer or lymphoma. Patients with adequately treated basal or squamous cell skin carcinoma are not excluded.
  • Clinically significant coagulopathy or a requirement for chronic anti-coagulation therapy precluding biopsy
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-negative recipient, if received kidney is from a CMV-positive donor
  • History of a psychological illness or condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, may interfere with the study
  • Graves disease. Patients who have been previously adequately treated with radioiodine ablative therapy are not excluded.
  • Active systemic infections
  • Platelets less than 100,000 cells/mm^3 at study entry
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00078559

Locations
United States, Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin - Department of Medicine
Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 53792-1735
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: A. D'jamali, MD, MS Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: University of Wisconsin, Madison
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00078559     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00585130
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIT ITN013ST
Study First Received: March 1, 2004
Results First Received: April 13, 2012
Last Updated: July 25, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by University of Wisconsin, Madison:
Immunosuppression
Renal Failure

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Acetaminophen
Diphenhydramine
Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate
Acyclovir
Valganciclovir
Clotrimazole
Miconazole
Nystatin
Pentamidine
Trimethoprim
Sirolimus
Promethazine
Methylprednisolone acetate
Prednisolone acetate
Prednisolone
Prednisolone hemisuccinate
Prednisolone phosphate
Alemtuzumab
Everolimus
Tacrolimus
Campath 1G
Antipyretics
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 20, 2014